The poodle is an elegant and comely dog, famous for its unusual curly hair. Representatives of this breed have a lively character, a cheerful disposition and are very smart.
- Breed Name: Poodle
- Country of Origin: France
- Weight: large 20 – 30 kg, small 8 – 14 kg, dwarf 6 – 8 kg, toy ~2.5 kg
- Height (height at the withers): large 45 – 60 cm, small 35 – 45 cm, dwarf 28 – 35 cm, toy 24 – 28 cm
- Life expectancy: 12 – 15 years old
- The poodle is one of the kindest and most obedient dogs.
- Has an outstanding mind, outstanding sense of smell, hearing and vision. Large and small dogs can be used for hunting, in the detective service, searching for truffles.
- The poodle loves water very much and is ready to frolic in it endlessly.
- Active, able to withstand heavy physical exertion. In urban conditions, it needs long walks.
- All poodles, even their smallest varieties, are unpretentious, have good health and have the status of centenarians.
- Dogs are absolutely not aggressive, on the contrary, they are endowed with special benevolence towards people.
- Excellent companions, but bad watchmen.
- Representatives of the breed get along well with children, becoming a friend and partner in games for them.
- Poodles have a thick springy coat, universal for creating a variety of hairstyles. They need regular combing and haircut.
Poodle is the embodiment of beauty and extravagant decorativeness, combined with the harmonious build of this dog, its magnificent temperament, high intelligence. The adorable appearance of the poodle sparkles with artistry, charm and expression, and his kindness and love of life know no bounds. These wonderful dogs are distinguished by incredible devotion, which extends to all family members, while poodles are very sensitive to human attention. They are funny, mischievous, like to fool around and are always ready to take part in games and fun.
History of the poodle breed
The belief that the poodle is one of the oldest dog breeds unites all experts from the world of cynology. However, there is no consensus about his homeland, ancestors, and the stages of formation of the breed. Three countries – Germany, Hungary, France - have claimed the right to be considered the birthplace of the poodle at different times. The original purpose of poodles, apparently, was hunting, and their progenitors were shaggy shepherd dogs and so-called water dogs, used to feed shot game from reservoirs during hunting. This kind of dogs lived in many countries of Western Europe.
Today, the prevailing opinion is that the poodle owes its origin to several breeds of dogs that differ from each other in size, but have a unifying feature – a long shaggy coat covering the entire body. It is the growth varieties of poodles that are still the cause of disputes about the origin of the breed. So, among the ancestors of a large and medium-sized poodle, water spaniels are called, whose ancestors, in turn, are barbet (French water dog), dogs related to komondors (shaggy Hungarian shepherds) and bullets (Hungarian water dogs). In the appearance of small poodles there are features of toy spaniels, maltese , bichons . Retrievers, cops and greyhounds are also believed to have influenced the formation of the breed.
In reconstructing the history of the breed, experts relied on etymological analysis, written documents, images of dogs that resemble a poodle. In German, "pudel" (or "pudelin") means "puddle", "swamp" or the whole concept of "wallowing in water". The English word "puddle", derived from "puddle", also translates as "puddle". The French name of the breed is kanish. The word "caniche" comes from "chien canard", which means "duck hunting dog".
Images of dogs resembling poodles in their appearance can be seen on ancient Roman and Greek coins, bas-reliefs of ancient Roman tombs. Poodle-like dogs are depicted on medieval paintings of the Benedictine monastery of Monreale in Sicily and the Abbey of Saint-Remy in France. Dogs with the "lion haircut" characteristic of poodles are present on the canvases of Dutch and Flemish school painters. The first written descriptions of the poodle can be found in European chronicles dating back to the XVI century, and they already mention varieties of these dogs that differ from each other in size and color.
By the XVIII century, poodles had gained extraordinary popularity among the European nobility. At the same time, hairdressing was rapidly developing in Europe, and during the reign of Louis XVI, the first grooming salons appeared in France. Court hairdressers, who mastered a new craft, began to cut the thick-haired favorites of their high-born masters in various styles. The king himself, in order to please his wife Marie Antoinette, who adored poodles, proclaimed the miniature poodle an official court breed.
The aesthetic appearance and kindness of the poodle also appealed to creative, artistic and extravagant natures. These dogs were the favorites of such great people as George Sand, Thomas Mann, Schopenhauer, Ludwig van Beethoven. Poodles have also become the favorites of circus performers, as their outstanding ability to give in to training allows them to perform stunning tricks in the arena. However, the poodle not only entertained high society and bohemia. His bravery, loyalty and intelligence were also in demand in military battles – dogs searched for the wounded, delivered secret reports.
The first poodle standard was defined and published in the UK in 1886, later breed standards were compiled in Germany. In each of these countries, animal breeding went its own way, which led to the appearance of different types of poodle. The British preferred the lightweight, elegant backbone of the dog. And in Kaiser's Germany, these dogs were bred, trying to give the breed a heavy, massive constitution. It is known that since the end of the XIX century, the archive of the Reich Chancellery of Kaiser Germany has been guarded by impressive-looking royal poodles. For a long time in Eastern European countries – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary – breeders focused on German standards, in other countries preferred poodles from the English "dynasty".
In France, the first poodle lovers club was opened only in 1923, but very soon this country received the title of the ancestor of the modern breed standard. The long-term president of the club and owner of the kennel for breeding poodles Mademoiselle Gagliani has achieved excellent results in breeding dogs of large, small and dwarf size, many of which have become champions. In 1936, the FCI (International Cynological Federation) approved the breed standard developed by the French Poodle Club.
In Russia, the breed gained popularity in the XIX century, although already in the time of Catherine II, poodles settled at the royal court. These noble-looking dogs were recognized not only in the aristocratic environment, but also in the circles of the Russian intelligentsia, artists, actors, writers. There is still an opinion that a poodle is a dog for people with taste and intelligence. In Russia, mostly large poodles were bred, and miniature breeds were imported from Europe.
In the USSR, after the Great Patriotic War, the Royal Poodle section began to work at DOSAAF, and in the 60s a section for lovers of small poodles was also opened. In 1989, the All-Union Poodle Club was established, renamed the Russian Poodle Club in the 90s. Today it is part of the RKF structure.
Nowadays, some diversity in the breed of poodles still persists, which is most clearly noticeable when comparing a large poodle and a toy poodle bred in the middle of the last century. However, the breeders have come very close to their goal – to ensure that the smallest dog is an exact mini-copy of the largest representative of the poodle breed.
Appearance of poodles
The current breed standard approves six poodle color options, two types of wool and four growth varieties: large (or standard, royal), small (or medium), miniature (or dwarf), toy poodle.
The poodle is proportionally built. The length of the trunk exceeds the height at the withers, which should approximately correspond to the height at the sacrum. The chest is deep, long, wide, well developed. Its front part is located high, which gives the landing of the head pride and nobility. The ribs have an oval-vaulted shape. The back line should be smooth, the lower back should be strong and muscular. The belly and groin of the poodle are tightened, but not as expressive as those of greyhounds.
Elongated, proportional to the body, has an elegant shape, but not too light. The skull is clearly sculpted, slightly convex in profile. The transition line from the skull to the muzzle is almost invisible. The contour of the muzzle is straight, elongated, not too sharp. The lips are of medium thickness, the upper one comes on the lower one, but does not hang down. The lip color of black, white and gray dogs is black, brown – brown, apricot–colored poodles can have any shade: from thick dark brown to black. The same color scheme with matching the color of the animal is characteristic of the lobe of his nose. The nose itself is quite large, the nostrils are well developed. The cheeks do not protrude, tightly fitting the zygomatic bones, expressed weakly.
Jaws and teeth
The jaws of the poodle are strong. The bite should be scissor–shaped, the teeth should be white.
Almond-shaped, non-convex, located slightly obliquely in line with the bridge of the nose. The eye color of black, white, gray, apricot dogs is dark brown or almost black with a blue tint. Brown poodles have brown eyes. Often there is a dark amber shade in their color. The expression of the eyes is lively, curious and even somewhat passionate.
They are set high, rather long, hanging down to the corners of the lips along the cheeks and adjacent to them. They expand downwards and are rounded at the tips. The poodle's ears are effectively decorated with thick long fur.
Strong, slightly curved at the back of the head. It has an average length, slightly less than or equal to the length of the head.
Forelimbs should be perfectly straight, parallel to each other, elegant, but also moderately muscular. The pasterns should be strong, but not massive. A well-developed musculature should be clearly visible on the hind limbs, especially in the hip area. When viewed from the rear, the hind limbs, like the front ones, look parallel to each other, but looking at the dog from the side, you should notice that the knee and hock joints are curved. The metatarsals are positioned vertically.
The paws of poodles have the shape of an oval, they are quite small, but strong. The fingers are connected by a swimming membrane, they are compactly bent, bent to the ground, their pillows are dense and plump. The color of the claws of black and gray poodles should be black. In brown – brown or black. In whites – black or pink, natural for the horn. In apricot-colored dogs, the claws can be painted black or dark brown.
Thick at the base, the tail is set high, pointing upwards. It can be either natural length, or shortened by half or by a third. If the dog is in a calm state, he keeps it lowered. During the movement, the tail is directed upwards along the oblique.
The movements of the poodle feel at ease, lightness and at the same time energy. His gait is incredibly elegant, reminiscent of a dance. Switching to a trot, the dog moves springily, demonstrating mainly the strength and muscularity of the hind limbs.
The poodle is the owner of a very thick and fluffy coat, it is the advantage of this dog, making the dog completely unique. The breed is characterized by two types of wool – curly and corded.
Curly wool has a fleece-like structure. It is clearly curled, very lush, voluminous, dense, has elasticity. Corded wool is also thick. Thin and delicate, it forms a knocked-down texture, which is countless thin cords covering the entire body of the dog. The cords should be no shorter than 20 centimeters. The longer the cords, the higher the exhibition potential of the poodle. In order for the dog to look neat and elegant, it needs to be combed so that the hair hanging by cords evenly hangs on both sides of the body. The wool growing over the ears can be collected in an elegant "ponytail" and decorated with a spectacular bow.
According to FCI standards, the color of a poodle can be black, white, brown, gray, apricot, red. Other international organizations also recognize other colors. The main requirement is that the color should be uniform, without markings.
There are restrictions for the shades of some colors. So, brown should be quite dark, warm tone. Dark chestnut color, which is obtained when black fades, is not allowed. Beige and lighter shades are also undesirable.
The intensity of the gray color should not be weakened, its shades should not approach either white or black.
The apricot color of the poodle should be smooth and not turn into beige, cream, dark chestnut, red color scheme.
Red color, in turn, should not resemble apricot.
Three main standards for poodle haircuts have been approved, they apply to both curly and corded dogs. The classic hairstyle is "Lion". Dogs with a similar haircut, but not so decorative, can be seen in the oldest images of this animal. The dog is shorn from the base of the tail to the ribs. Also, the haircut affects the upper part of the muzzle to the lower eyelids, the lower part of the muzzle, cheeks. The hind and lower limbs are cut short, with the exception of cuffs or bracelets. It is permissible to leave the wool on the forelimbs – "pants". Woolen decoration may be present on the lower back. A round or oval pompom is left on the tail. Dogs don't cut their moustaches.
"English haircut" is similar to "Lion". This option involves modeling lush cuffs or bracelets on the hind limbs, when hoops are cut short between them. On the head – top notes (wool gathered in a bundle, pinned, for example, with a bow on an elastic band). The moustache is shorn.
The "Modern" hairstyle implies the preservation of wool on the fore and hind limbs. There are such options:
- the coat is cut very short on the front paws from the claws on the paws to the claw on the wrist (fifth finger). The lower part of the hind limbs is cut to a height corresponding to the cutting on the front. The muzzle and tail are cut in accordance with the "Lion" option;
- the wool is shortened along the body to a length that should not be less than 1 cm to create a textured moire effect. The length of the coat should gradually increase during the transition from the back to the ribs and upper limbs;
- in the variant with aligned (ordered) wool, a cap is left on the head, but not too high, the wool also remains on the back of the neck. It should descend smoothly to the withers, then to the shoulder blades and the front of the chest. In front, the wool cover should form a continuous line up to the completely shorn tips of the paws. The fur remains on the lower part of the ears. Its length increases downwards, ending in a lined fringe. The hair on the top of the ears can be shortened or shaved off.
Types of poodle haircuts
Disadvantages of the breed
- Arched or sunken back.
- Excessively low tail.
- Nose lobe is partially depigmented.
- The muzzle is pointed, spots on the muzzle.
- Hump on the back of the nose.
- Excessively large, frankly deep-set eyes, their color is not dark enough.
- Too short ears.
- Sloping of the croup.
- Long, sliding step, smooth movement.
- Rare, weak or excessively stiff coat.
- Excessive nervousness.
Photo of a poodle
Poodles, whose appearance is distinguished by sophistication and elegance, are often called "female" dogs, and this is completely unfair. Do not forget that the ancestors of this dog with a delightful appearance were hunting dogs. From them, the poodle got mobility, energy, and love for an active lifestyle. He loves sports games with a ball, jogging with the owner, and swimming gives him the greatest pleasure. However, the dog will also not mind lying on the couch with the owner and watching TV shows.
The poodle is distinguished by outstanding intelligence and quick wit. They say about him: "A poodle is not yet a person, but it is no longer a dog." It is the intelligence and intelligence of the poodle that determine its behavior, demonstrating unparalleled obedience. It may even seem that this dog is a saint, but in fact he idolizes his master and recognizes him as an indisputable authority, since he realizes that he is smarter than himself. The dog supports the "leader" in all his actions, and does not consider it necessary to contradict him. If the owner digs up the ground in the garden, the poodle will immediately join the work and start digging the ground nearby, and if he decides to sit down and admire the sunset, he will certainly settle down next to it and watch this action with abandon.
Natural observation, intelligence, memory, curiosity help the poodle to catch all the nuances of communication – changes in facial expressions, gestures, intonations of the owner, anticipating his further actions and wishes. The dog is ready for anything, just not to upset the owner, so he strives to fulfill his instructions exactly, and sometimes manages to do it even before he has expressed his wishes. If the poodle has made a mistake, he will demonstrate by his behavior that he is asking for forgiveness, he has realized everything, and this will not happen again.
The poodle's ability to perceive human speech is perfectly developed. It is believed that he knows more than 70 words. But fans of this breed of dog are convinced that such a number is excessively underestimated. Moreover, poodles understand many words by following the movement of a person's lips. This gift allows them to become excellent companions for deaf and dumb people.
The poodle is a very contact dog. He needs communication not only with the owner, but also with all family members. At the same time, an innate sense of pride does not allow the poodle to be intrusive. The owners of this dog should understand that it needs signs of attention and expressions of love. Otherwise, the poodle may well become depressed and even get sick.
Poodles love children. They are ready to be their friends and guardians at the same time. By the way, the poodle's ability to take care of can manifest itself in relationships with all family members, regardless of their age – in this the dog realizes his shepherd inclinations.
The poodle is not aggressive and is completely harmless. The attitude towards outsiders depends on whether he liked the person or not. But he can bark at the objectionable in extreme cases. The guards from the poodles are worthless, but if they feel danger, they will certainly notify the owner with a ringing bark.
Poodles get along well with pets living with them in the same family, including cats. However, representatives of the feline family, not familiar to the dog, may suffer if the hunting instinct kicks in.
The main character traits of poodles of different height categories are almost identical, but there may be some cowardice in the character of the toy poodle, manifested in fear of loud sounds and sudden movements. This disadvantage is corrected with the help of proper education. Toy Poodle is less energetic than its counterparts.
Education and training
Such innate traits of the poodle's character as intelligence, obedience and imitation, as well as his inherent sense of shame, make the learning and training process almost trouble-free. These dogs memorize commands very quickly, it is enough for them to explain or show a couple of times what and how to do, and they will forever remember the lesson. Poodle puppies are playful, like children, therefore, training should take place in the form of a game, where the owner acts as a partner and companion. The dog begins to perceive human life as a game, and tries to imitate people: puts his toys in a box, brings the right things. Growing up, the poodle literally becomes humanized, begins to take a lively part in family household affairs, shares the hobbies of its owners.
Shouting at a poodle and punishing him is not allowed. Actually, he himself rarely gives a reason for this. If, nevertheless, the dog "made a mistake", the explanation of his mistake should not occur in a too edifying and tedious form. It is necessary to shame the pet briefly and convincingly at the right moment and in the right place so that he understands what is at stake.
A poodle is a thinking dog, and this quality needs to be developed and encouraged: communicate a lot with him, talk, explain your actions, talk about what you expect from him.
A poorly behaved dog who does not know what subordination is, most likely, will imagine himself to be the main one in the family and will demonstrate disobedience. This is especially true for miniature and toy poodles.
Care and maintenance
In order for the poodle to always look healthy, well-groomed and neat, regular care of its magnificent thick coat is necessary. It is advisable to comb the dog every day, at least three times a week, since his regrowing hair does not fall out. To do this, you should purchase a special comb for combing the poodle and a massage brush.
Combing the dog is necessary, alternating movements along the coat and against it. First, the wool is combed on the body, then on the paws. If you do not follow this rule, the dog's fur will fall off, get tangled, tangles will form, which are very difficult to get rid of.
The poodle loves water very much, so bathing, which he needs quite often, does not cause him inconvenience. The dog should be washed at least once or twice a month, using a special shampoo for long-haired dogs. Before the water procedure, the poodle should be carefully combed. If tangles have formed, they must be disassembled or carefully cut out with sharp miniature scissors. Lather the dog and thoroughly wash off the foam should be at least twice. Carelessly washed wool will certainly quickly fall off again.
Another important element in the care of a poodle is a systematic haircut. The elastic and springy coat of this dog is the basis of its decorativeness. When pressing on the wool with the palm of the hand, resistance is felt, and it almost instantly restores its original shape. This feature allows you to model a variety of hairstyles, the number of which no dog can compare with a poodle. In addition to standardized haircuts, there are a lot of fantasy haircuts, among which "sporty" and "sheep" are the most popular. They are a simple contouring of the case.
The haircut of the body and limbs should be carried out every three months, and it is advisable to entrust it to an experienced groomer. In order to learn how to cut a poodle yourself, reading the manual will not be enough, it is better to take practical lessons from a master, ideally – to take specialized courses. But everyone can carry out a hygienic haircut. Every month, special scissors are used to trim the overgrown hair on the muzzle, under the tail, in the genital area. It is advisable to cut the abundantly growing hair between the fingers, crumb and on the fingers themselves once every two weeks.
An energetic poodle needs physical activity. If he stays in four walls, he will certainly get in the way, inviting his hosts to the game. You need to walk him at least three times a day, it is desirable that at least one walk was long, and the dog had the opportunity to run without a leash.
The poodle can be fed with both natural food and ready-made feeds. Meat products should make up about a third of the diet. Give preference to beef (preferably not frozen), chicken and beef liver, tripe is very useful. Some of the meat can be boiled. At the base of porridge, use oatmeal, rice, buckwheat, millet. You need to cook porridge on water, not on meat broth. It is permissible to treat a pet with pasta, but in minimal quantities. Eggs can be given no more than twice a week. Feed the dog cottage cheese with the same frequency. If he does not want to eat raw food, offer him cheesecakes. Periodically add vegetables to the diet, you can in the form of a salad, seasoned with vegetable oil or sour cream.
Buy dry food, canned food, top dressing for natural food in specialized stores, giving preference to premium products.
Two–month-old poodles are fed 3-4 times a day, six-month-old ones - no more than three. After the dog is 8 months old, it is transferred to two meals a day.
Health and diseases of the poodle
The poodle is a fairly hardy and healthy dog, but there are a number of diseases peculiar to this breed:
- Addison's disease (limited production of hormones by the adrenal gland), often expressed in gastric "disorders" and lethargy;
- bloating, requiring immediate treatment to the veterinarian;
- hypoplasia of the optic nerve, dangerous in that it can cause blindness or distorted perception of the environment by the eye;
- PRA – retinal atrophy, is a genetic disease;
- Cushing is a tumor, often malignant, the disease is characteristic mainly of elderly dogs;
- chronic active hepatitis – with this liver disease, it is not possible to cure a dog, but the development of the disease can be stopped;
- hypothyroidism – thyroid disease;
How to choose a puppy
The choice of poodle puppies is quite wide, due to the differences in their color and size. It should be borne in mind that in a family where there is a baby, you should not take a miniature (dwarf) or toy poodle, since dogs from this category often suffer from childish awkwardness. The choice of color depends on subjective preferences. There may be poodles of different colors in one litter.
During a visit to the breeder, in whose reputation you should certainly be sure, do not rush to immediately acquire the first puppy you like, but observe his behavior. Healthy poodle puppies are always active, playful, among them you need to choose the most mobile and curious. Note that females tend to be more calm.
If you decide to opt for a miniature or toy poodle puppy, do not purchase the smallest of them: it may turn out to be the weakest.
Check the eyes of the poodle – they should be clean, without accumulation of secretions in the corners. It is also necessary to examine the tummy for rashes, redness. Do not disdain to check the condition of the fur under the tail: if it is stuck together, it is likely that the dog has digestive problems. The doggie should not itch and limp.
Even purebred poodles of white color may have cream or apricot areas of fur on their chests, ears, and lower limbs – this is not a breed defect, with age the coat will turn white. It happens that puppies are born with pink noses, paw pads, but over time these areas darken.
Poodle puppies are preferably purchased when they are already 2 months old. If you want your chosen one to take part in exhibitions in the future, he must be at least four months old.
The breeder must give you a puppy card, which can then be exchanged for a pedigree, and a veterinary passport with vaccination marks.
Photos of poodle puppies
How much does a poodle cost
The cost of a poodle puppy depends on its size, color, age and location of the kennel.
Show-class puppies with an exhibition perspective are sold from $900. Breed-class babies who can take part in breeding are estimated from $700. Poodles belonging to the pet class, having minor deviations from the standard, but completely healthy and beautiful, cost about $500. Poodles with a hard-to-touch coat resembling horsehair are always rated lower.