Dachshund is an example of an amazing contrast between an unremarkable appearance at first glance and the perfection of internal content.
- Breed Name: Dachshund
- Country of Origin: Germany
- The time of the birth of the breed: XVI century
- Weight: up to 12 kg
- Height (height at the withers): up to 35 cm
- Life expectancy: 10-13 years
- Originally bred as an assistant for burrowing hunting, the dachshund to this day has retained the best properties inherent in its ancestors – activity, intelligence, dexterity, fearlessness and independence. Nevertheless, it is perfectly suitable for home maintenance.
- The dog requires compliance with a number of rules: it can not stand on its hind legs, jump from a height. These conventions are related to the peculiarities of the structure of the animal's body and are aimed at avoiding harmful effects on the spine and musculoskeletal system of the dog.
- Dachshund is a tireless dog who is infinitely devoted to his master. Be prepared for the fact that you will have to reciprocate her and spend a lot of time communicating with your friend. If you are a very busy person or just tend to have a quiet philosophical pastime, this pet is not for you.
- A walk for a dachshund is always an adventure. Moreover, the dog does not try to turn off its hunting instinct. She is keenly interested in everything that only moves, so the best means of control during walks will be a roulette leash. Without him, a dog in the heat of hunting excitement can go very far.
- Dachshunds treat children well. The main thing is to make sure that your household, in a fit of sincere delight and admiration, does not harm the puppy, because the little dachshund, despite its desperately brave disposition, is still a very fragile creature. Representatives of the breed are friends even with cats, but they usually need time to establish a relationship.
- The dachshund is interested in everything, so items that can be potentially dangerous to the dog's health (electrical wiring, household chemicals, house plants), it is better to remove in advance to an inaccessible place. Small things that the puppy may inadvertently swallow, also put away.
- Dachshund is a big fan of eating. But it's impossible to gain extra weight. The development of a balanced diet and compliance with the diet is one of the most important tasks.
Dachshund - without exaggeration, the most "charming and attractive" among a huge number of breeds. The charm of this dog allowed her to ignore the trends of capricious and changeable fashion, remaining for more than two centuries in the top lists in popularity. Among the loyal fans of the breed, you can meet both avid hunters and people who sincerely perceive the dachshund exclusively as a lap dog. The main thing remains that they all consider their pets to be the standard of canine intelligence, courage, devotion, love and beauty.
History of the Dachshund breed
The dachshund is a hunting dog designed for burrowing, and in this segment it can rightfully be considered the oldest breed. Although dogs similar in appearance to dachshunds are found even in ancient Egyptian images, it is generally believed that the modern phenotype began to form in the XVI century. The birthplace of the breed is the German land of South Saxony.
The main ancestors are German short–legged hounds brakki. Having preserved all the best hunting qualities of the latter, the dachshund was able to turn their disadvantage – short limbs – into a big plus, and became an indispensable dog for burrowing hunting.
German burghers suffering from badger raids on agricultural land quickly appreciated all the advantages of the dachshund. The breed did not give up its positions even during the active development of cities in Germany, because it was convenient and not expensive to keep a dog.
Very energetic, intelligent and devoted, the dachshund by the end of the XVII century more and more won the hearts of Germans. The active breeding of representatives of this breed has begun. The number of dachshunds increased very quickly, the first nurseries appeared in Germany, and soon the breed began to spread across Europe. There was no single approach to the principles of breeding then. Each breeder solved the problem based on his personal ideas and preferences. As a result, two main directions in breeding have gradually developed – working and decorative.
The logical conclusion of the breeding work was the adoption of the first breed standard in 1870. The main purpose of breeding dachshunds was indicated for use in hunting. Ten years later, von Bosch developed the design of an artificial burrow for training and training dachshunds, and since 1893 this structure has been used for working tests of dogs. The modern FCI classification distinguishes dachshunds into a separate group with the greatest variability – 9 varieties of the breed are officially recognized and standardized.
In Russia, the dachshund has been known since the middle of the XVIII century, although the breed was not widely distributed at first. In 1900 , the Russian Society of Amateurs appeared fox terriers and dachshunds, and from the same time specialized exhibitions began to take place, breeding books appeared.
The dachshund was gaining more and more popularity, although it was perceived by the inhabitants of our country rather as a decorative dog. Among the famous owners of dachshunds, one can name the great Russian actress Maria Ermolova, the writer A. P. Chekhov, who loved his four–legged pets very much - Brom Isaich and Hina Markovna. Of the foreign celebrities, one can recall a big fan of the dachshund oceanographer Jacques Yves Cousteau.
The bloody XX century with its two world wars had an extremely negative impact on the number of representatives of the breed in Russia. Only 11 dogs were presented at the exhibition in 1958.
Fortunately, the situation was corrected. Today, the dachshund is one of the most numerous and popular breeds in our country.
Appearance of the dachshund
The main distinguishing feature of dogs of this breed is a long trunk on short limbs. There is a division into varieties depending on the size and type of wool cover.
- standard dachshunds. Male weight – 7-9 kg, female – at least 6.5 kg;
- small dachshunds. Male weight – up to 7 kg, female – up to 6.5 kg;
- rabbit dachshunds. Weight up to 4 and 3.5 kg, respectively.
Rabbit's chest circumference is up to 30 cm, small – 30-35 cm, standard – more than 35 cm.
Height at the withers – from 12 to 27 cm, depending on the variety.
Elegant, rather dry, shaped like a wedge. The skull is flat on top. The muzzle is slightly hooked, long. The transition to it is not sharp, rather smoothed and smooth. The lips have a slight crease in the corners. The nose lobe is large, brown or black, depending on the color of the animal.
Dachshund's teeth are large, powerful, in a complete set of 42 pieces. The bite is scissor-shaped. The jaws are strong.
Dachshund ears of medium length, hanging, rounded. Located close to the back of the head, high. The leading edge should touch the cheek.
Oval, medium-sized. Planted wide. Color – from reddish-brown to dark brown. Whitish, blue eyes are allowed (although it is still undesirable) in marble dachshunds.
Muscular, tall, long enough. The nape is slightly convex.
The back line is straight or slightly descending to the croup. The loin is long, with well-developed muscles. The chest is wide, with the chest bone pushed forward. The ribs are rounded, lowered to the middle of the forearm. The withers are well defined. The abdomen is moderately tightened.
The front ones are straight when viewed from the side. The forearms are short, located almost vertically. The elbows are directed strictly backwards. The limbs are very muscular with strong bones. The paws are lumpy, arched, with well-developed pads and strong strong claws.
The hind limbs of the dachshund are proportional in length to the front, muscular, with a strong backbone. Delivered in parallel. The angles of the knee and hock joints are pronounced well. Paws in a lump, firmly standing on well-developed healthy pads.
The tail of dachshunds is not planted very high. It keeps along the top line, moderate saber-like appearance is possible.
There are three varieties.
- Smooth-haired dachshund. The coat is short, thick, shiny, without the slightest signs of receding hairline. It adheres well to the skin. It feels hard and dense. Hair length – up to 2 cm.
- Wire-haired dachshund. Thick coat with undercoat, straight, tightly fitting on all parts of the body except for ears, eyebrows and muzzle. There is a well-defined beard on the muzzle, bushy eyebrows. The fur on the ears is almost smooth and noticeably shorter than on the body. It feels hard. The average hair length is about 3 cm .
- Long-haired dachshund. Smoothed shiny coat with undercoat, well fitting on the body. It forms a fringe on the ears. Well-defined feathering on the back of the legs. It reaches its greatest length on the underside of the tail.
Yellow-red and pure red of various shades, black, gray or brown with rusty-red or yellow clear markings, marble of the listed colors. The "wild boar" color from light to dark shades is characteristic of the wirehair.
Any deviation from the above points is considered a defect or a disqualifying sign, depending on the degree of severity.
A detailed list of defects, defects and disqualifying signs is given in the description of the FCI breed standard, group 4, Dachshunds.
Photo of an adult dachshund
The nature of the dachshund
"With a sense of self–esteem, with a strong character and therefore causing such sympathy," reads the inscription on the emblem of the German Tekel Club. This phrase can be safely considered one of the most accurate and capacious characteristics of this animal.
Fearlessness, pronounced individuality, amazing ingenuity and independence in decision–making, which indicates high mental abilities - all this is a dachshund.
Some owners note a certain stubbornness and disobedience in the behavior of their pets. We can agree with this, but we should not forget that the dachshund is a hunter, and for a burrowing animal. And not only the success of hunting, but also her life depends on her ability to make the right decision without commands and prompts from the owner during a fight with a badger or a fox in a narrow hole. And the dachshund is not stubborn from harmfulness – she just understands this situation better than you (in her opinion). If your opinions coincide, then the command will be executed accurately and without delay, which is why it is so important to establish close contact and mutual understanding with the pet. A good loving owner's dachshund is always responsive and obedient.
Despite the small size and original appearance, dogs of this breed are distinguished by self-confidence and, in modern terms, lack of complexes. Nature has left no place for servility in the heart of this dog. The dachshund will never forgive a rude disrespectful attitude towards itself, the reaction will be adequate. Disobedience, sabotage, doing out of spite – the dog uses all available means to assert his "I". The basis for building a good relationship can only be mutual respect.
The dachshund has proven itself perfectly as a companion. She can behave in a balanced and even somewhat philosophical way, but in a suitable atmosphere she becomes a cheerful inventive minx. These dogs get along well with children, taking part in a variety of fun with pleasure. In addition, representatives of the breed are very clean.
Many are struck by the discrepancy between the size of the dachshund and her voice. Powerful and loud barking can mislead not only a fox hiding in a hole, but also an uninvited guest who came to the door of your house.
This dog loves walking very much and will be happy to accompany you even on the most distant hikes.
Dachshunds are great connoisseurs of comfort. In the house they choose the warmest and cozy corners for themselves, they like to relax, crawling under the blanket or on the knees (or even on the neck) of the owner. They gladly accept caresses from the household.
The dachshund's character is an amazing combination of integrity, strength, tenderness and love for a person.
Education and training
The dachshund is a smart and quick–witted dog. She will quickly understand that permissiveness and connivance on the part of the owner is very cool, so you need to start raising your pet from the very first day of your acquaintance.
Training can wait a bit, but you need to teach the dog to a nickname, a diet, a place, explain to the baby "what is good and what is bad" right away. Success in education can be achieved only on the basis of establishing close contact and mutual understanding with the animal.
It's not difficult to train a puppy to a nickname. Calling by name, caress him, treat him to something delicious. Do not forget to encourage if the animal, reacting to its name, runs up to you. Little dachshunds are very cute, and you will have to show a certain firmness of character, accustoming to the place, because you so want to take this miracle to your bed or let him lie on a chair. It will be almost impossible to wean a dachshund from such behavior, so it is better to stop such attempts right away, gently and carefully each time treating the dog to her mat, while repeating the command "Place!". Do not be afraid to clearly and clearly express your displeasure with the wrong behavior of the puppy. The main thing is that your "Ugh!" sounds to the point.
Dachshunds are very clean, so it is not difficult to teach the baby to relieve himself in the tray. You just need to take the puppy to the toilet in time (after sleeping, after eating, or if the dog starts to behave restlessly). It is clear that he must stand in a specific place. When the walks on the street begin, the tray can be removed. At the same time, attempts – especially successful ones – to go to the toilet in the apartment are evaluated negatively (in no case punishing), and the same actions on the street are strongly encouraged.
It is very important in the upbringing of a small dachshund to adhere to the regime in feeding, games, walks.
Dachshunds are smart dogs and can be trained well. The training takes place on the principle of "from simple to complex". It will be easier to achieve the basic commands "Sit!", "Next!" or "Lie down!" if you manage to interest your pet. The choice of method largely depends on the temperament and character of the puppy. Considering that dachshunds are real gourmets, training gives good results, where a favorite delicacy is used as a reward.
A dachshund is a dog that by its nature actively reacts to external stimuli, so it is important to transfer your classes to the street from the age of three months so that the baby gets used to extraneous noises and learns to respond only to your commands.
The training process should not contain any elements of violence. If the dog is tired and ignores you, reschedule classes.
Dachshund training is an exciting activity, and how far you want to go in the process depends only on you. In principle, you can teach your pet almost all the skills and abilities that a dog's mind can do.
Care and maintenance
The dachshund is perfect for home maintenance, and taking care of it will not require any excessive effort from you.
Before bringing a puppy into the house, it is necessary to carry out certain preparatory work, namely:
- carefully inspect the apartment and remove all household chemicals, indoor plants to places inaccessible to the dog, pack loose electrical cords in special boxes;
- wash the floor and hide all the shoes;
- prepare places for feeding and resting the dog, buy all the necessary accessories;
- stock up on moisture-absorbing diapers and purchase a special tray (with or without a column). A dachshund (especially a small one) has very active metabolic processes, and these items will definitely come in handy.
You will also need a claw cutter, a tape measure leash up to 5 meters long, means for bathing, caring for the eyes and ears of the animal.
The dachshund mat should be placed in a warm, cozy place, away from drafts and heating appliances. A soft flannelette blanket covered with a sheet that can be washed as it gets dirty is best.
Basic rules of dachshund care.
- Use specially designed shampoos for bathing. The frequency of water procedures is once every three to four months, not more often. It is not recommended to bathe small (up to six months) puppies. Washing dirty paws after a walk does not count.
- Be sure to trim the baby's claws once every two weeks. An adult dachshund grinds them herself during walks, and such manipulation may be required about once a quarter.
- Inspect the eyes and wipe them with a clean cloth soaked in warm water, removing the accumulated secret.
- Ears are cleaned with a cotton swab soaked in a weak solution of hydrogen peroxide as they become dirty.
- Smooth-haired representatives of the breed can be wiped with a terry towel or a mitt. Long-haired dachshunds need to be systematically combed with a special brush.
- Constantly clean the dog's teeth. This is the best prevention against the appearance of tartar and possible inflammation of the gums.
Important! The owners of these cute dogs should know that:
- dachshunds should not be allowed to jump down even from a small height;
- it is forbidden to take puppies by the scruff of the neck. Lifting the baby, take it under the chest with one hand, and support the hind legs with the other. To avoid injury to the elbows, do not lift the puppy under the paws;
- small children should not be allowed to carry a puppy in their arms – they just might not be able to hold it;
- as playmates, it is better to choose suitable dogs for your dachshund;
- do not take the puppy outside until you receive all the necessary vaccinations.
It is very important not to overfeed the animal. Excess weight is the enemy of the dachshund, as it creates an excessive load on the spine.
It is undesirable to use dry puppy food. This dog is not so big that it will not be able to organize a balanced diet from natural products.
The menu of the dachshund must include the following products: low-fat cottage cheese, cereals (hercules, rice, buckwheat), which can be cooked in meat broth or add pieces of meat to the dish (beef, lamb, chicken or turkey meat), although milk porridge is preferable for puppies. Vegetables are also useful in the diet, twice a week you can give dachshunds eggs, mixing and grinding them with cottage cheese. It is quite acceptable to give fish once or twice a week (sea and boneless). But milk in its natural form will not bring benefits to the dog – it simply is not absorbed by the animal's body.
Do not forget about mineral supplements, especially powdered clay, which is very useful for dachshunds.
Food from our table, sweets, spicy and spicy dishes do not need to be offered to the dog.
Dry mixes are better suited for an adult dog. Premium-class feed in this case is a perfectly acceptable alternative to a natural diet.
Dachshund health and Diseases
Canine diseases, characteristic of most breeds, can manifest themselves to one degree or another in dachshunds, and the methods of their treatment are quite traditional and typical. However, there is one "but" that should please the future owner – these pets, in principle, very rarely get sick. And this is an indisputable fact.
There are two diseases that occur only in representatives of this breed. The first is a disease called the "swimmer effect". It occurs at an early puppy age and outwardly manifests itself in the fact that monthly puppies can not get up on their paws in any way and move crawling, making "swimming movements" with their paws. In most cases, this is a transient condition that does not affect the health of grown–up dachshunds in any way - they stand on their limbs and walk perfectly. However, the negative development of the disease, although rare, still takes place. As preventive measures, it can be recommended not to overfeed babies and make sure that they are not on slippery surfaces, where it is difficult for their still weak legs to find support.
The second disease, which belongs to the category of hereditary, poses an incomparably greater threat to the dog's life. We are talking about intervertebral disc dysplasia. A fairly high incidence of this disease is associated with the characteristic structure of the dachshund's body. Problems with intervertebral discs can lead to infringement of the spinal cord body, deformation of nerve trunks and, as a result, paralysis. Statistics show that the most critical age for the onset of the disease is 5-7 years, although earlier cases of diagnosis of this disease are known. In this regard, it is very important to strictly control the intensity of physical exertion and feed the animal properly, in no case allowing excess weight gain. This will significantly reduce the load on the spine.
Diseases transmitted in dachshunds at the genetic level include papillary-pigmented skin dystrophy. Against the background of a violation of the secretion of the sebaceous glands, the integuments begin to thicken, become covered with pigment spots. Characteristic changes are most often manifested on the chest and abdomen of the dog, on the inner surface of the ears and in the armpits. The disease belongs to the category of rare, but when it occurs, it does not respond to effective treatment.
There are also cases of idiopathic epilepsy seizures in dachshunds, which are characterized by impaired coordination of movements of the hind and then forelimbs, as well as vomiting. Seizures lasting from 2-3 minutes to half an hour pass on their own. Outside intervention is not required. Most often, such phenomena were observed in animals of two to three years of age.
All of the above diseases belong to the category of hereditary, and it is impossible to completely protect the dog from their appearance. Due to proper care, attentive attitude to the condition of the dachshund, it is possible to significantly reduce the risks.
We should also not forget the general therapeutic and preventive measures. Timely vaccination, deworming, periodic examinations at the veterinarian will guarantee the good health of your pet.
How to choose a puppy
If you decide to have a dachshund, then you need to start choosing a puppy even before it is born.
First of all, it's worth deciding whether you want to have a working or decorative dog. It depends on where you should go – to the exhibition or to the field to evaluate the qualities of the parents of your future pet.
It's good if you have the opportunity to observe how a pregnant bitch is kept. In many ways, the quality of a puppy depends on the conditions of intrauterine development.
It will also be useful to make inquiries about the breeder, especially if you are buying a baby not from a nursery, but from a private person.
So, the puppies were born. You will pick up your new friend at the age of one and a half to two months. It is advisable to agree in advance with the breeder about the cost of the animal. It is important to decide in advance whether you will choose a dog yourself or a breeder will find it for you.
When making an independent choice, pay attention to the following points:
- the puppy should not have dewclaws – they are removed in the first days of the baby's life;
- the tail of a small dachshund is smooth to the touch and quite mobile without the slightest signs of any kind of deformation. By the age of one month, it can be seen whether the tail will be straight (in accordance with the standard) or will begin to twist into a ring;
- in a four–week-old puppy, it is already possible to assess the correctness of the bite, but the probability of such a defect as double incisors cannot be predicted - you will have to wait for a complete change of teeth;
- the presence of an umbilical or inguinal hernia is not difficult to determine visually. This is not dangerous, but since you still have to operate on the baby, you can have a conversation with the owner about reducing the price;
- take a closer look at how the puppy moves. The support when walking should be on the pads of the paws. Any deviations in gait, sluggish hind legs, waddling ass can be signs of serious problems with the musculoskeletal system.
As for the color of the dachshund: it will fully manifest itself only by the year, but some patterns should be taken into account.
- Red puppies will lighten up. But their nose lobe and claws should be black. The breeder's assurances that the light claws and nose lobe will eventually become dark and will meet the breed standard are a deliberate lie. In the tone of the main color, the lobe and claws are allowed only in brown dachshunds.
- The tan of black-and-tan puppies should be expressed as brightly as possible, on the chest it resembles the shape of a butterfly with clearly defined edges and a black jumper.
- Examine the puppy for white spots or markings. If they are hardly noticeable, then, perhaps, they will disappear with age. Remember that the white coat of a dachshund is a disqualifying sign, and your pet will not be allowed to breed and participate in exhibitions.
The condition of the animal's fur, ears, and eyes are assessed traditionally (shine, lack of secretions and unpleasant odor). A dachshund puppy should be moderately well-fed and heavy enough. It is not fat (due to a fattened belly on carbohydrates), but heavy. A healthy baby is playful and active, shows a keen interest in the surrounding space, has a good appetite.
Dachshunds show individual character traits very early, so take a closer look at the dog with what temperament you would like to see at home.
Photos of dachshund puppies
How much does a dachshund cost
If you have decided to purchase a dachshund puppy for the soul and do not plan to participate in exhibitions, trials or hunting, then you may find the option of buying online or even on the market. The price in this case will not be too high – only a few thousand rubles. As a rule, such dachshunds do not have documents, and you consciously assume all future risks for the health of your pet, compliance of its appearance with the requirements of the standard. It is possible that today's cute puppy, when he grows up, will turn out to be either not quite, or not at all, a dachshund either in character or in appearance.
The price for a "legalized" puppy that has all the necessary documents, has been vaccinated according to age and meets the requirements of the standard, will start from the amount of $200. Do not be surprised at such a serious figure. Even such a price in most cases rarely covers the costs of a responsible breeder associated with breeding, providing proper care for a pup bitch and new babies, and processing all necessary documents.