- Breed name: Pomeranian
- Country of Origin: Germany
- Time of origin of the breed: XVIII century
- Weight: 1,4-3,2 kg (preferably about 2 kg)
- Height (height at the withers): 18-22 cm
- Life expectancy: 12-16 years
- Pomeranian easily finds a common language with the owner, to whom he feels boundless love and loyalty.
- It is a wonderful friend and companion for conscious children. It is better to refrain from buying an animal for younger pranksters.
- Has excellent watchdog qualities and a loud "bell" notifies of the arrival of an unexpected guest.
- Not suitable for keeping in an aviary or on a chain. An apartment or a country house is an ideal place.
- Pomeranian needs careful and regular care, active rest and long walks. Before you start a representative of this breed, you should soberly assess your strength.
- Dogs love to bark, which is pretty annoying to neighbors, and often to their own owners.
- With the weakness of the owner, the pomeranian tends to show dominance and stubbornness, which is not easy to cope with.
- The breed is not suitable for novice dog breeders.
Pomeranian is a tiny fidget with a pretty face, who cannot imagine life without active walks in the fresh air. The breed combines remarkable intelligence and temperamental character of large relatives. This teddy bear will fearlessly rush to your defense if he sees an enemy in a random passerby. Despite loyalty and love, the Pomeranian will not sit at the feet of the owner for a long time. For him, lying in the foliage and throwing out energy in an active game is much more interesting.
History of the Pomeranian breed
Looking at the ball curled up comfortably in a chair, it is difficult to imagine that his ancestors were several times larger and lived on the territory of modern Northern European countries. This is evidenced by the archaeological burials of the Neolithic era. The so-called peat dogs were used for movement, thanks to endurance and strength. It is worth noting that this method is still widespread in Iceland and Lapland. In the southern territories, these dogs were bred to protect ships in ports or property. The era of the Middle Ages radically changed the attitude towards them: pretty appearance and indomitable energy earned the love of the European aristocracy. Increasingly, noble ladies and august persons appeared at social events in the company of a four-legged companion.
The inhabitants of Germany were the first to show sincere interest in the breed from which the Pomeranian Spitz originated. It was here that the dogs of the Spitzhund breed began to be bred, which by the XVIII century had spread throughout the medieval state. For a long time, dog handlers could not come to an agreement: where did the Pomeranian come from? Laurels passed to the German city of Württemberg – the center of dog breeding, then to Pomerania – the Prussian province. Many experts have made bold statements comparing spitz with dogs that lived in China, ancient Egypt and Greece. As a result, the right to be considered the birthplace of this breed was assigned to Pomerania.
The first individuals weighed about 15 kilograms and exceeded the size of modern Pomeranians. Wanting to make the breed more compact, German dog breeders selected the most miniature specimens for breeding. This business was continued in England, where the Pomeranian "sparkled" with new colors.
Queen Victoria played an important role in the recognition of the breed. Like many before, she could not resist the charm of Marco the Pomeranian, who met the Queen in Florence and soon went with her to England. Over time, this made the breed popular. The repeated victories of the royal spitz at various shows and exhibitions caused the desire of the townspeople to acquire the same charming pets. At the end of the XIX century, the Pomeranian was recognized as a breed awarded by a separate kennel club. It consisted mainly of noble ladies, many of whom later founded the first nurseries where Pomeranian spitz were bred and kept, often of a certain color. For example, one of the nurseries was famous for animals with cream and white fur, and in the other you could find specimens of black shades.
The efforts of English dog breeders made it possible to change the size of Pomeranian spitz, which became much smaller in comparison with their German relatives. All animals were divided into two groups: individuals weighing less than or more than seven pounds (about 3.1 kilograms). As a result of many years of breeding, English pomeranians have become a standard that breeders from all over the world have tried to match. However, to this day, it is the natives of Pomerania who remain the smallest of the Spitz.
Back in 1892, this breed conquered the inhabitants of America, where the dogs were brought from English kennels. Despite the fact that Pomeranian pomeranians were not recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), a well–known cynological organization that still exists, the animals immediately fell in love with their enthusiasm, playful behavior and, of course, silky fur. Everything has changed since the beginning of the XX century, when the foundation of the American Pomeranian Spitz Club put a bold end to the process of recognizing the breed.
Eleven years later, the first exhibition was held, at which numerous pomeranian breeders competed for the right to become the best. By that time, the pomeranians could boast of a whole palette of colors. Animals of black, white, chocolate, cream and blue shades caused universal admiration, but only one orange was awarded the highest award. It was the Prince Charming Banner with a noble black shade of wool, which belonged to Mrs. F. Smith. The famous champions of the subsequent exhibitions were the Pomeranian pomeranians Dainty Mite (Elegant Baby), Princess Ula and Twilight (Twilight). All of them gave numerous offspring.
Despite the visible progress in the breeding of Pomeranian spitz, American dog breeders continued to work on improving the breed, but soon abandoned the attempt to make the animals more miniature. A strong decrease in the proportions of the body led to the inability to continue the genus, which negatively affected the breeding of dogs. Experimentally, it was found that it was most difficult to maintain the blue color of pomeranians, and white spitz looked larger than their relatives with a different coat color and therefore participated in exhibitions less often.
It is worth noting that it was on the American continent that the correct name was fixed for the breed – the orange. The rest mistakenly called the Pomeranian either German or dwarf. Now this trend is less common, although in the classification of the FCI (international cynological organization) Pomeranians are still registered under the name "German Spitz".
This breed has gone a long but interesting way from service northern dogs to the favorites of noble persons. Now Pomeranian Pomeranians are regular participants of various exhibitions and events. Animals are admired for their intelligence, perky character and thick fur inherited from their ancestors. Compact dimensions combined with a big heart make the Pomeranians excellent companions and loyal friends.
Appearance of the Pomeranian
Pomeranian refers to dwarf dog breeds. However, his dense physique and strong musculature do not detract from grace and grace. The FCI standard assumes that the height of a pomeranian at the withers should be equal to the length of its trunk and be 18-22 cm.
The mass of pomeranians is proportional to their height and ranges from 1.5-3.2 kg. Exhibition representatives of the breed should ideally weigh 2 kg.
Head and skull
The head of the Pomeranian Pomeranian is small in size. The wide back of the skull narrows towards the nose, thereby forming a wedge. The rounded forehead contrasts with the insufficiently pronounced occipital protuberance. Cheekbones are almost invisible due to plump cheeks.
A well–defined stop is a characteristic feature of a narrow muzzle, which is half the size of the skull. A small and neat nose is always black (it can be brown in orange and red-colored specimens). The same is the case with lip color.
The triangles of the ears "stand" close to the top of the head. They have a sharp and hard tip. At birth, the ears of the orange are hanging, but "rise" when the dog grows up.
Small dark eyes set obliquely. The shape is mostly almond-shaped or oval. The eyelids are black; dark brown pigmentation is acceptable in dogs of similar color. The orange has a lively and even mischievous look, which gives the animal a resemblance to a fox cub.
Jaws and teeth
The upper jaw of the Pomeranian overlaps the lower one, thereby forming a regular scissor bite. Straight and tick-like bites are not recognized as a defect. There are 42 teeth. The absence of premolars in orange is uncritical.
A strong neck has a slightly curved shape. The length is average, there is no so-called suspension. The high landing is masked by a lush "frill".
The neck of the Pomeranian ends with the withers, and that ends with a short back. The loin, in turn, turns into a short uncut croup. The chest is developed. The stomach should be tightened, and the ribs should be well felt.
It has an average length, is located relatively high. Due to the fact that the tail ring lies on the back, the dog looks miniature and rounded.
are set wide. The shoulders are distinguished by pronounced musculature. Tight-fitting fingers evoke associations with a neat cat's paw. The black shade of the pads and claws is characteristic of all representatives of the breed, except for red, cream and brown.
Are parallel to each other. Thighs and shins are in equal proportion. Small paws are not as round as the front ones. The fingers are clenched and end in black claws and pads (some dogs have brown ones).
Manner of movement
Orange moves easily and plastically. The hind limbs have a good push. The dog is a little springy when walking.
Orange wool hides a dense undercoat. Short soft hair covers the head, perky protruding ears and the front side of the limbs. The remaining part of the body is distinguished by a long straight coat, which is not characterized by the presence of curls and waves. The shoulders and coat of the dog are hidden by the mane. The fluffy tail smoothly merges with the "pants" on the hind limbs.
The Pomeranian breed has ten coat colors: white, blue, black, cream, orange, sable, blue or black with tan, chocolate and two-tone. Spotted color implies white as a background color and uniform distribution of markings.
Any deviation from the standard is considered a breed defect. Among them:
- sharp narrowing of the skull from the back to the nose;
- apple-shaped head or too flat;
- watery protruding eyes, their light shade;
- body pigmentation of eyelids, nose and lips;
- waddling gait, "prancing";
- double ring at the end of the tail;
- pronounced stop.
In addition, disqualifying vices are also distinguished:
- aggressive or cowardly behavior;
- unstrung fontanel;
- half-standing ears;
- overshot and/or undershot;
- eversion or inversion of the eyelids;
- clear borders of white spots.
In orange males, two developed testicles should be completely located in the scrotum.
Photo of an adult Pomeranian
The character of the Pomeranian
The owners of charming pomeranians note their good-natured nature, unrestrained curiosity and cheerful enthusiasm with which fluffy buns explore the world even within the apartment. It is not necessary to get a pomeranian as a decorative dog, with which you can lie on the couch and watch your favorite movie. The Orange prefers active games, and a walk in the fresh air is a delight at all. A dog of this breed will gladly bring a thrown ball, chase a pigeon lying on the curb and rush to protect the owner from the "threat". In general, a fun walk with a fluffy fidget is provided.
Pomeranian easily finds a common language with the owner, adapting to his lifestyle. A faithful dog will never make noise early in the morning if you prefer to get up around noon, and will follow on your heels as soon as you wake up. Representatives of this breed are attached to the family in which they live, and can be sad if they are not given proper attention. Many owners of spitz note that returning home after work is fraught with a remarkable manifestation of love on the part of the little bear. The dog will always be there for you: while cooking dinner, taking a shower and sleeping at night. Some animals can sleep in a room with their owner (sometimes – next to the bed) in order to please in the morning with another portion of affection and a loud call to take a walk in the city park.
The orange has a tendency to bark and responds with a loud "voice" to any suspicious rustle. This dog makes an excellent watchman who will scare away an uninvited guest, forgetting about his miniature size. Sometimes a pomeranian can bark for no reason, and then the owner will have to gently adjust the habit of his pet.
If you plan to take a Pomeranian as a friend for a child, the attitude towards a new family member should be conscious and careful. Pomeranian will be happy to keep the children company in a fun game if he is used to their company as a puppy. Otherwise, the dog will prefer to remain a bystander.
Pomeranian Spitz behaves with restraint with strangers and only in the absence of proper upbringing can bark at a random passerby. The dog reacts warily to everyone's affection and will not allow everyone to run their fingers into the soft plush fur.
The pomeranian gets along well with other animals, but sometimes shows a habit of dominating relatives. The appearance of a second dog in the house is an alarm bell for the orange: you need to show the owner and the new fluffy rascal who is in charge in the house. However, if the pomeranian grew up with other animals, these problems will not arise. Carefully introduce your pet to decorative rats, hamsters, parrots and others: the hunting instincts of the orange can manifest itself at the most unexpected moment.
Education and training
The Pomeranian is naturally gifted with highly developed intelligence, which greatly facilitates the learning process (in comparison with other decorative dog breeds). However, a stubborn and independent nature can become a serious obstacle to the execution of commands. Forget about traditional methods of training: in this case they do not work. Your pet will have to find a special approach.
The main thing in raising a Pomeranian is to forget about his touching appearance. Often the owners of these dogs treat them as if they were children, considering pets small and still unable to perform complex commands. The Pomeranian needs a confident owner who can show firmness of character and has leadership qualities. Only in this case, the dog willingly lends itself to training, learning both basic commands and tricks worthy of circus performances. If a pomeranian considers himself a step above you, he will defiantly refuse to listen to any exhortations and requests to sit down, lie down or give voice.
Delicate handling of a pet and delicious encouragement is the most effective approach to training this breed. Pomeranian does not like criticism and responds to the manifestation of cruelty or disrespect with waywardness, audacity or even aggression. A naughty dog will bring a lot of trouble to the owner, so first you need to teach your pet to perform the simplest actions: sit, lie down, approach the leg, go to the place. The command to stop barking is no less useful: not everyone will like the high and sonorous intonations of the "voice".
In general, dog breeders characterize the Pomeranian as a quick-witted creature that can be easily trained with the right approach to training. The only thing that can cause problems is toilet training. Due to the peculiarities of the structure, it is difficult for a pomeranian to keep the contents of the bladder for a long time, so the dog can relieve himself right in the apartment. However, if you have the patience to teach your pet to ask for a walk on time, the cleanliness of your home will remain untouched. Especially creative dog breeders teach a pomeranian to go to the cat toilet.
Care and maintenance
Long and fluffy wool is the main asset of Pomeranian spitz, so the lion's share of care falls on careful combing. Representatives of this breed shed twice a year. At the same time, the first molt occurs in the fourth or sixth month, when the "adult" wool cover comes to replace the puppy's pillow. The females of the Pomeranian pomeranian molt begins during estrus and after childbirth, so do not be afraid. However, permanent bald spots should make you think about changing your pet's diet and selecting new cosmetics for hair care.
It is not recommended to bathe pomeranians more than once or twice a month (as needed). To do this, use a diluted shampoo for long-haired breeds: a concentrated remedy can have the opposite effect. It is necessary to treat the velvety fur of the dog with an air conditioner and thoroughly dry it with a hairdryer. Use a comb with long teeth or a fluffer. Pay attention to the fact that when combing the wool should be wet, so you always need to have water softened by the same conditioner at hand. The molting period requires more thorough combing.
Milling scissors are used for cutting orange. Basically, the coat is shortened to maintain a neat appearance of the dog. For hygienic purposes, the owners of the spitz cut the space between the pads of the paws and the area under the tail. In no case do not use a "typewriter"! This will disrupt the natural structure of the hair, which in the future is fraught with the regular appearance of tangles in the wool.
The teeth of the Pomeranian are cleaned with a special paste 3-4 times a week. To do this, you can use a brush or a nozzle. A piece of bandage wrapped around a finger will also do. In order to avoid the appearance of tartar and further treatment, it is recommended to include solid food in the pet's diet.
The claws are cut using a claw cutter for dwarf breeds. Do not forget to process the formed sharp edges with a nail file. Paw pads also deserve care: rub vegetable oil into them – and painful cracks will never disturb your pet!
Orange nutrition should be balanced. Dry food with the maximum content of essential minerals and vitamins is suitable for this. Natural food is no less useful, but in no case treat the pomeranian with food from the table:
- smoked meats;
- flour products;
- fatty and spicy dishes;
- river fish.
Food should always be fresh, and its temperature should be at room temperature. Do not forget about the sufficient amount of water that needs to be changed daily.
Health and diseases of the Pomeranian
The northern origin rewarded the Pomeranian with good health in comparison with other dwarf breeds. Even at an advanced age, these lively cubs feel great.
Thick woolen coat explains the predisposition of oranges to the formation of tangles. Some dogs suffer from alopecia – baldness of certain parts of the body. Especially frightening is the so-called black skin disease, which is fraught with complete hair loss and pigmentation of the skin. However, the disease itself does not harm the health of the pomeranian, being limited only to the unattractive appearance of the animal.
Merle-colored oranges are most susceptible to diseases. They are born deaf, with increased intraocular pressure and coloboma – a defect of the eye shell. There are violations in the functioning of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and nervous systems.
Characteristic diseases of Pomeranian spitz include:
- ligament weakness;
- knee joint subluxation;
- gastrointestinal dysbiosis;
- colitis and gastritis;
- cough caused by laryngeal spasm;
- retinal and lacrimal duct atrophy;
Rare diseases include tumour and undescended testicles in males.
How to choose a puppy
Before taking a new pet into the house, you need to decide on its future fate. Show-class puppies are the best suited to participate in exhibitions. Breed-class dogs are bought mainly for breeding. If you see in the Pomeranian a wonderful friend and companion, pay attention to the puppies of the pet class - and you will not lose.
The future owner of the dog should understand that there is no absolute guarantee. Not all representatives of the show class occupy places of honor at exhibitions, as well as not all bitches of the breed class are distinguished by fertility. If this is important to you, it is better to take a pomeranian from experienced breeders who pay due attention to the proper breeding of dogs. Although we should not forget that even a pet-class kid can grow a champion if he fully meets the breed standard.
When choosing a Pomeranian puppy, it is necessary to pay attention to its health and appearance. A healthy baby should be lively, playful and frisky, show curiosity to you and not be afraid of an outstretched hand. The size of a puppy should not determine your choice: even the smallest specimen can grow into a large dog.
The sex of the baby in most cases determines his behavior in the future. Males are distinguished by bullying and stubbornness, while bitches are gentle and complaisant, although there are exceptions.
Photos of Pomeranian puppies
How much is a Pomeranian
The price of a puppy depends on several factors. Offspring from elite bitches and males costs from $500 to $1000. For 30-50 thousand, you can take a Pomeranian from a more modest family. A fluffy baby without documents costs up to $150. Remember that a bitch is valued several times more expensive than a male.
It is best to buy a Pomeranian puppy in an official kennel that is engaged in breeding this breed. So you will get a loyal friend with excellent health and inexhaustible optimism.