- Breed Name: Rottweiler
- Country of Origin: Germany
- The time of the birth of the breed: middle of the XVIII century
- Weight: males ~50 kg, females ~45 kg
- Height (height at the withers): males 61-70 cm, females 56-65 cm
- Life expectancy: 11-12 years
- Rottweilers reach full physical and psychological maturity by the age of two.
- Require prolonged walking in combination with active games and physical activity.
- Need a serious and strong mentor. They will create a lot of problems for inexperienced owners who do not have the skills to work with service dogs.
- Rottweilers do not tolerate high temperatures, but they feel quite comfortable in the cold, thanks to the dense undercoat.
- Recognize the dominant role of the host, but absolutely do not accept violence against their own person.
- Smart, able to make decisions at lightning speed if there is a threat to human life and health.
- Are distinguished by a good appetite, thanks to which they are able to quickly "eat up" extra pounds and lose shape.
- Get along well with the pets they grew up with.
- Small dogs and puppies are treated with indifference and contempt. In large individuals, they feel rivals, often provoking them to fight.
- Animals that have not passed the mandatory training course are usually uncontrollable and pose a danger not only to others, but also to their own owner.
Rottweilers - serious and energetic brutals, whose main purpose is to serve a person. It is from rottweilers that the best rescuers and guides are obtained, ready at any moment to risk their own lives in the name of human salvation. On the street, these muscular beauties are the embodiment of threat and alertness. They are energetic, observant and always in control of the situation. However, as soon as the dog returns home, an affectionate sloth wakes up in her, occupying a soft sofa and ready to absorb delicious treats by the kilograms.
History of the Rottweiler breed
The ancestors of the Rottweilers – Molossians – made their way to the territory of western Europe together with the legions of Claudius Augustus, after the Roman wagons crossed the Alps and crushed the southern part of modern Germany. The soils of the new colony were fertile, so the Molossians quickly found a worthy occupation here: large and ferocious dogs began to guard and graze cattle.
The breed got its name in honor of the city of Rottweil in southwestern Germany. Located at the crossroads of trade routes and surrounded by a stormy Neckar, this provincial corner was the main supplier of meat for the German principalities. Well, since there were a lot of hunters to eat this nutritious product for free in the Middle Ages, specially trained dogs were attracted to the protection of meat carts in Rottweil. By the way, at first the four–legged guards were called Metzgerhund, which literally means "butcher's dog".
Rottweil burghers willingly used strong and serious animals not only as guards, but also as carriers of meat products. Rottweilers harnessed to carts delivered juicy steaks and tenderloin, thereby saving their owners from the need to keep draft cattle. However, after the railway tracks ran through Rottweil and cattle ranchers were able to transport their goods in a new, faster way, the need for breeding dogs disappeared, and the breed gradually began to degenerate.
Rottweilers were remembered only at the beginning of the XX century, thanks to a curious case widely covered by the German press. The essence of the incident was that during a scuffle with the sailors who had gone on a spree, the sergeant of the Stuttgart police set his Rottweiler on the violators of the order. The animal "solved" the dangerous conflict in a matter of minutes, turning the brave sailors into a shameful flight. After this incident, the breed regained its previously lost popularity and by 1921 had acquired its own fan club.
Rottweilers reached Russia only in 1914. Initially, hardy and executive "Germans" were imported as working dogs, able to fight predators and guard cattle. However, after the end of World War II, they were assigned another "honorable" mission: guarding Gulag prisoners. Soviet breeders spent a lot of time and effort trying to create a new "model" of a guard dog, characterized by special cruelty. Such individuals were indeed bred, but it became absolutely impossible to consider them as pets.
Everything changed in the 80s, when a Rottweiler male Harras Steinkopf was brought from Germany to the USSR. Outwardly, this tall handsome man stood out noticeably against the background of his rude and ferocious relatives. In addition, the animal had a relatively calm and peaceful disposition, which gave hope that its descendants would be able to get along with a person as a friend and companion.
Rottweilers are athletes of the dog world. These well-built and "pumped up" beauties sink into the soul precisely with their harsh power. They literally exude calmness and reliability. The standard weight of an adult male is 50 kg, bitches – up to 45 kg.
The skull is medium-sized, with developed arches of the cheekbones and a convex forehead. There is a noticeable occipital protuberance. The muzzle is smooth, wide at the base and tapering towards the nose.
The lobe is black, slightly "stretched" in width, with impressive nostrils.
Teeth and Jaws
The jaws of the Rottweiler are massive, of sufficient width. Bite – "scissors". Teeth are strong, strong. The ideal number of teeth is 42.
Almond-shaped, small, with eyelids tightly fitting to the eyeball. The reference shade of the iris is dark brown. The look is open, bold, but without aggression and malice.
Rottweiler ears are small, hanging, triangular in shape. The post is high and wide at the same time. The edge of the ear is closely adjacent to the zygomatic zone, which creates the illusion of a wide, massive forehead.
Muscular, but "dried" type, not very long. There is a slight bend in the upper part.
Strong, developed back combined with a short, dense loin and rounded rump. The chest is spacious, deep. The breast bone is massive. The groin area is noticeably tightened.
The front legs are straight. The shoulders are close to the sternum, the elbows are pressed against the dog's body. The angle of inclination of the blades is 45 °. Forearms and pasterns are developed. The hind limbs of the rottweiler are smooth, placed at some distance from each other. The hips are elongated, with good musculature. The angles of the joints are blunt. The paws are rounded, firm, compressed into a "lump". The pads are elastic. The claws are short but strong. The hind legs are noticeably longer than the front ones.
The tail of the rottweiler is elongated, continuing the upper line of the back. It is not subject to mandatory cupping, therefore this procedure is carried out exclusively on the initiative of the breeder.
Leather and wool
The skin is smooth. On the head, it gathers into shallow longitudinal wrinkles if the dog is curious. According to the standard, skin folds on the skull of an animal in a calm state are unacceptable. The coat is uniform: a short thick undercoat + a stiff outer coat that fits snugly to the body. The coat is longer on the hind legs.
The color of the rottweiler is black, with brown-reddish, well-defined tan markings. The location of the tan: throat, chest, legs, cheekbones, the area under the eyes.
The main disqualifying vices
- Mismatch to sexual type (males in the type of bitches and vice versa).
- Malice, increased excitability, cowardice, insecurity.
- Inversion and inversion of the eyelid, eyes of different shades, yellow color of the iris.
- Malocclusion, incomplete set of teeth.
- Excessively long and slightly wavy coat.
- White markings.
Photo of an adult rottweiler
Rottweiler is a born fighter, ready to defend its owner 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. At the same time, in an informal setting, these muscular bodyguards turn into charming bumpkins who like to take a nap or fool around in the company of people they like. They get along well with children, patiently enduring their pranks and whims, and are happy to carry out small errands for the rest of the family. However, the kindness of representatives of this breed does not extend beyond their own apartment. Any stranger, be it a small child or an adult, is considered by the Rottweiler as a potential threat, and the animal never changes this rule.
Rottweiler is a dog of one owner. It is difficult for animals to tolerate a change of owner: they become depressed, run away, and show uncontrolled aggression. If you petted or treated another animal in the presence of a pet, be prepared to observe the dog's discontent and jealousy in all its glory. Rottweilers do not like to share the owner's attention with other four-legged brethren.
Paradoxically, but representatives of this breed are very sensitive to noise, fuss and everyday conflicts. If the owners often sort out the relationship with each other in raised tones, this necessarily affects the mental health of the pet. Rottweilers who have grown up in such a nervous environment, as a rule, have deviations in behavior and show aggression even towards their own owners.
The Rottweiler attacks the offender quickly and without warning. Seized with rage, representatives of this breed do not feel pain, so it is almost impossible to drag away a dog that has attacked a person or another animal. At the same time, rottweilers are not particularly vindictive: after a fight, the dog cools down quite quickly, without making repeated attempts to attack.
Training and education
Keeping a Rottweiler at home who has not passed the training course is a serious extreme that will cost the dog owner too much in the future. When buying a puppy of this breed, start looking for an experienced trainer for him in advance. Paid training courses are also relevant in cases when it comes to the upbringing and socialization of an adult who previously lived with another owner.
In order to save the budget, you can take on the role of a coach. Start training the puppy from the very day when he got into your house. Start with the simplest commands, gradually complicating the task, but remember that young Rottweilers cannot focus on one thing for a long time. Accordingly, the duration of one lesson should not exceed 10-15 minutes.
The main skills that a puppy should master by the year:
- 1.5-2 months. – feedback on the nickname, commands: "Place!", "Eat!";
- 2-3 months – ability to walk on a leash, commands: "You can't!", "Fu!", "To me!";
- 3-4 months – commands: "Give me a paw!", "Show your teeth!";
- 4-5 months. – education of useful habits and norms of etiquette (the habit of not lifting objects from the ground, refusal of treats from other people's hands), commands: "Aport!", "Nearby!", "Walk!", "Wait!";
- 5-6 months. – commands: "Voice!", "Barrier!", "Forward!", "Back!";
- 6-12 months – formation of a calm attitude to noise (sounds of public transport and others), lessons on finding objects by smell;
- 12 months and further – the ability to take a trace and detain an attacker, protecting the owner during an attack; commands: "Face!", "Drop it!".
Half-year-old puppies are often stubborn and self-willed, so the "carrot" method no longer works with them. In addition, during this period of life, the animal awakens a passion for dominance: young Rottweilers begin to growl at the owner, and sometimes bite him. To put an arrogant teenager in his place and assert his own authority, use punishments. These include: depriving the dog of treats, lifting it off the ground, accompanied by shaking, compression of the muzzle.
Important: while walking on a leash, the Rottweiler must firmly understand that the right to plan the trajectory of movement belongs entirely to the owner.
It is necessary to socialize a puppy from the first weeks of life. Arrange meetings with other dogs for the animal, go with him to visit friends, walk the animal in noisy and crowded places. The puppy must understand that the world is not limited to the walls of the house and it is full of other living beings. During walks, behave calmly so as not to unnerve the animal once again and not provoke it to attack passers-by and other dogs.
Types of training courses for rottweilers
- The general training course (OKD) is training in a complex of basic commands, as well as practicing the ability to pass an obstacle course with subsequent exams in the RCF.
- Protective Guard Service (ZKS) is a complex of protective and protective skills developed for animals serving in law enforcement agencies. To date, there are "lightweight" versions of the ZKS courses aimed at teaching the animal the techniques of protection and protection of the owner.
- Managed Urban Dog (UGC) is a simplified course for domestic dogs, the main task of which is to help the pet navigate correctly in the urban environment. Within the framework of the UGC, the rottweiler is taught the basics of behavior in public transport and crowded places, patient waiting for the owner. After completing the course, the animal receives a diploma of the kennel club.
Care and maintenance
Keeping a service breed dog is always a big responsibility, since such animals require a firm hand and constant monitoring. A rottweiler, of course, can take root in an apartment, but the best habitat for bodyguard dogs will be a country house with a booth and an aviary equipped in the yard. In the warm season, the animal can be left in the aviary around the clock, but with the onset of frost it must be relocated to a heated room or taken into the house.
Walking rottweilers is supposed to be twice a day, at least for 10-20 minutes, and preferably an hour and a half. Walking should be combined with intense physical activity and active games to maintain the pet's shape. By the way, not all representatives of this breed like physical activity: many individuals prefer to run for hours lying on the couch. In such cases, the dog will have to be artificially stimulated by praise or the promise of treats.
Rottweiler care will not take much time. The dog is combed a couple of times a week, bathed 2-3 times a year, the rest of the time being limited only to washing the pet's paws after a walk. The claws of the animals are cut as needed, which may never come, since the Rottweiler, leading an active lifestyle, the claw plate is worn off naturally. Once a week, it is necessary to allocate time for checking and cleaning the ears. The ear funnel is cleaned with a piece of cloth soaked in alcohol-free lotion or dry. Dogs' teeth are cleaned with a gauze swab with soda 4 times a month.
Adults are fed twice a day, puppies under the age of six months are recommended to be fed three times a day. The daily allowance of food should be no more than 5% of the total body weight of the animal. The amount of industrial feed is calculated according to the formula: 20-40 g of "drying" per kilogram of dog weight.
Since most individuals have a tendency to overeat, the amount of calories consumed by the dog must be carefully monitored. In particular, it is useful for animals who overeat or start gaining weight to cut down on "rations". The same should be done with elderly dogs whose metabolism is no longer so intense. In particular, "pensioners" reduce the amount of carbohydrate-containing foods, but at the same time increase the frequency of feeding (up to 3 times). Once a week, rottweilers are given a fasting day on fermented milk products and water.
List of foods that should be present in the diet of an adult Rottweiler:
- lean meat (lamb, rabbit, lamb, beef) or offal;
- raw or boiled fillet of sea fish;
- raw or boiled egg (twice a week);
- fermented milk products;
- cereals (rice, oatmeal, buckwheat);
- vegetable oil;
Should not be given to a pet:
- sweets and chocolate;
- sausage products;
- tubular and fish bones;
- river fish;
The food bowl is placed on a vertical stand at the level of the dog's chest, which helps to form the correct posture of the puppy. The dishes from which the rottweiler eats should be enameled, metal or ceramic, but in no case plastic.
Important: Rottweilers are fed only warm food. The use of chilled or excessively hot dishes provokes gastritis in the animal.
As for dry food, here we should give preference to premium options of the "holistic" class. Mixing of "drying" with natural products is prohibited, while alternating wet and dry industrial feed is welcome.
The discipline of nutrition for Rottweilers is a severe necessity. The pet's bowl should be filled with food twice a day and cleaned 15 minutes after the start of the meal. Do not give in to the temptation to arrange a snack for the dog and do not keep the food left after breakfast or dinner in a bowl, counting on the fact that in a couple of hours the hungry animal will finish it. There should always be clean water in the rottweiler's bowl.
Rottweiler health and Diseases
Like most dogs of large breeds, Rottweilers live from 8 to 10 years. Exceptions to the general rule also take place: with proper care and tireless care, individuals are able to live another 3-5 years beyond the established norm. Thanks to their massive physique, Rottweilers give the impression of healthy men who visit the veterinarian's office only in case of routine vaccination. In fact, these dogs have plenty of ailments.
The most common diseases of rottweilers:
- hip and elbow dysplasia;
- Addison's disease (autoimmune disease associated with impaired adrenal function);
- aortic valve stenosis;
- retinal atrophy;
- Willebrand's disease (low blood clotting);
- gastrectasia (inversion of the intestines).
Some individuals may have kidney problems, as well as disorders of the nervous system. A little less common is such a congenital disease as hypotrichosis (baldness).
How to choose a puppy
Inexperienced owners who decided to buy a Rottweiler for the first time, it is more expedient to opt for bitches who have a softer character and learn commands faster. They make highly qualified watchmen. The only disadvantage of "girls" is that they do not tolerate other bitches around them.
Rottweiler males look more statuesque, but they need a serious male mentor. Most "boys" are prone to vagrancy, so you should bring a male animal into the house only if you are ready to carefully adjust its behavior. It is better to take a puppy into the house at the age of 2-3 months, since during this period the animals still do not show stubbornness and are easily trained. Be sure to get to know the baby's mother, do not forget to check with the nursery staff her age. Ideally, the bitch should be from 2 to 8 years old.
To rule out the possibility of hereditary joint dysplasia, ask the breeder for X-rays of the puppy's parents' limbs. Check the living conditions of the future pet: the puppy enclosures should be clean and dry. In addition, toys or objects replacing them should be present in the cages of babies. It is more reasonable to give preference to puppies with a dark tan color, since after the first molt, the Rottweiler fur often brightens. In addition, individuals of a darker color are stronger and hardier. Carefully examine the baby's abdomen for signs of an umbilical hernia. Pay attention to the dewclaws: purebred puppies should have them docked.
Even if you see a future bodyguard in an animal, give up overly aggressive individuals. A proper Rottweiler is a balanced Rottweiler. In self-respecting nurseries and training schools, too vicious representatives of the breed are rejected as unsuitable for training and further breeding. At the same time, the dog's stubbornness is considered an indicator of a strong character. Such individuals make excellent watchmen.
You can test puppies for courage with noise effects. For example, by clapping your hands over the animal's head or ringing a bell. An adequate Rottweiler will definitely listen to new sounds and show curiosity, and too cowardly kids will run away.
Photos of rottweiler puppies
How much does a rottweiler cost
Rottweiler is a medium–priced breed. You can buy an active healthy puppy with the RKF metric from well-known parents on average for $200 - $300. A more economical option is animals with exterior defects, without documents, as well as those born as a result of unplanned mating. The average price tag for such individuals – $50 - $70.