- Breed name: Newfoundland
- Country of Origin: Canada
- Weight: males ~68 kg, females ~54 kg
- Height (height at the withers): males ~71 cm, females ~66 cm
- Life expectancy: 9-11 years
- A distinctive feature of the breed is a passion for water. Newfoundlands are able to dive, make long swims, they are unsurpassed rescuers of drowning.
- Newfoundlands are characterized by high socialization and genuine heroism. Many animals are in the service of the police, military units, work as guides.
- Dogs are very friendly, enjoy communicating with people, including strangers.
- Newfoundlands behave on equal terms with adult family members. The kids are patronized, they protect them and patiently endure annoying harassment.
- Are attached to other family pets: from parrots to cats. They do not experience aggression towards foreign animals and try to establish friendly relations.
- The benevolence of Newfoundland will not allow him to be a guard dog, he does not have an innate aggressive reaction to strangers, he needs time to assess the situation. However, sensing danger to family members and homes, these dogs quickly repulse the enemy.
- Have high intelligence, excellent memory, quick wit, are surprisingly able to anticipate the desires of the owner.
- Representatives of the breed are polite and delicate, but they absolutely cannot stand criticism towards themselves, they do not tolerate shouting and rude orders. Physical punishment of these dogs is unacceptable, the offense will leave an indelible mark in their memory.
- Newfoundlanders are characterized by a measured lifestyle, they are not too mobile, so their activity should be stimulated. The best way is to provide them with the opportunity to swim, play in the water.
- Need regular care for their luxurious thick fur.
- Are adapted to life in urban apartments, but it is desirable that the room area be larger than the average. Ideal conditions for the maintenance of Newfoundland – a country house near the reservoir.
Newfoundland - a dog that it is impossible to pass by without a smile. Her mighty forms and "bearish", somewhat intimidating appearance are not able to hide her generous heart and kind disposition. Excellent character, self–esteem, incredible kindness, devotion, courage, expressive majestic appearance are the virtues that brought these dogs world fame. They are the heroes of many literary works, reports, participants of dangerous expeditions and military operations. Newfoundland in the family is always an inexhaustible source of joy, warmth and love.
History of the Newfoundland breed
The birthplace of the breed, which shared its name with it, is the island of Newfoundland, located off the east coast of North America and belonging to Canada. There are many legends about the origin of these dogs, and many of them, quite possibly, are not so far from the truth.
Some dog handlers suggest that the ancestors of the Newfoundlands are the Berenbeitzers, the "bear–fighting" etching dogs common in medieval Europe, which are also considered the progenitors of mastiffs. These powerful dogs allegedly came to the island together with a Viking team led by Scandinavian sailor Leif Eriksson on a ship that arrived on the coast of Newfoundland around the year 1000. Subsequently, the descendants of these animals went wild. When Europeans reappeared here in the XVI century, they were amazed by the sight of huge black and shaggy dogs they met here.
According to the famous Swiss cynologist, Professor Albert Heim, who specialized in the study of Newfoundlands, these animals descended from Molossians, massive dog-like dogs of the so-called mastiff type, brought to the island by the British during its colonization.
There is an opinion that among the ancestors of the Newfoundlands are large black–piebald shepherds, who also came across the ocean from the European continent. White Pyrenean mountain dogs are also mentioned, which could have been brought to North America by Spanish and Portuguese settlers. It is believed that it was thanks to them that the black and white color of Newfoundlands appeared.
Some dog handlers suggest that the formation of the breed was not without aboriginal representatives of the dog tribe. Presumably, already in the XI century, indigenous tribes lived on the island, who were descendants of the Paleo-Eskimo peoples, whose companions and assistants were sled dogs. Perhaps it was from them that the Newfoundlands inherited their friendly disposition and determination to come to a person's aid under any circumstances.
The first descriptions of dogs from the island of Newfoundland began to appear at the dawn of the XVIII century. Two types of them were known: the "Little Dog of St. John" and the "Big Dog of St. John". "St. John" or "St. John's" is the name of the largest settlement on the island at that time, today it is the main city of the Canadian province of Newfoundland. The descriptions noted the excellent working qualities of these dogs, their good-natured nature, as well as the ability to dive deep and swim far. The British began to export dogs from the island and soon began their systematic breeding. The first type was used to breed retrievers, and the second became known as Newfoundland. According to some reports, for the first time, in 1775, George Cartwright named his dog Newfoundland.
Initially, English breeders selected for mating dogs that had a black and white color, later named Landseers in honor of the British painter Edwin Henry Landseer. He loved to depict such dogs on his canvases. However, over time, breeders began to give preference to animals with solid black color.
In the middle of the XIX century in the UK there was a fashion for large representatives of the dog tribe. At the exhibitions in 1860 and 1862, held in Birmingham, dogs from the island of Newfoundland made a splash, and in 1864 a dog belonging to the Prince of Wales himself took first place at the Birmingham Exhibition. In 1878, the first Newfoundland was entered into the stud book of the English Kennel Club, the oldest kennel club in the world, and a year later the breed standard was developed. Magnificent mighty dogs began to rapidly gain popularity in Europe, and in 1885 the first Newfoundland amateur club was founded in the USA. Today, in the famous kennel clubs of Europe and the USA, you can buy Newfoundland puppies, leading their official pedigree since the 80s of the century before last.
At the beginning of the XX century, Newfoundlands gained popularity among Russian aristocrats, but the fashion for them did not acquire a mass character. In the 40-50s, representatives of this breed were actively exported from Germany to the USSR. In the nursery of the Ministry of Defense "Red Star" breeders worked to improve the working qualities of Newfoundlands. They were crossed with German and Caucasian shepherds, trying to give the dogs aggressiveness and at the same time preserve the instincts of a rescuer in them. These experiments ended in failure, as dogs, instead of helping a person, showed aggression towards him. The Newfoundlands also did not succeed in the guard service. In the 80s, breeding work on breeding a new breed was stopped, although it managed to get its own name – the Moscow diver.
Since the mid-80s, breeding of imported Newfoundlands began in Russia, and Moscow divers gradually "dissolved" into their livestock. The memory of them is preserved by the pedigrees of a small number of domestic Newfoundlands and the tradition of calling this breed of dog divers. Often Newfoundlanders are also called Newfoundlanders.
Appearance of Newfoundland
Newfoundland is a mighty dog of athletic build, whose coat resembles a luxurious boyar fur coat. The huge size of the dog does not make it clumsy and clumsy. On the contrary, they perfectly own their own body and look quite elegant. A male can weigh up to 70 kg, bitches – up to 55 kg.
The body of Newfoundland is strong, dense, compact. The length of the body from the withers to the base of the tail is identical to the length from the withers to the floor. The back and croup are broad, solid, the loin is strong, muscular, the chest is powerful. The lower line of the chest of the abdomen is almost flat. In females, the body is often more elongated and not as massive as in males.
Large, heavy, with a wide skull having a slightly protruding arch. The occipital protuberance is well developed. We can distinguish the stop, but it is not excessively sharp. The relatively short muzzle of Newfoundland has a square shape, it is covered with short soft fur. There are no skin folds on the muzzle. The corners of the mouth are clearly expressed. The cheeks are soft. The nostrils are well developed. The color of the nose lobe is distinct. In black-and-white and black dogs, it is black, and in brown – brown.
Jaws and teeth
The jaws are powerful. The teeth look impressive: they are large, white, with pronounced canines. The bite is scissor-shaped or straight.
Are small, planted deep and at a fairly wide distance from each other. The eyelids should not droop and expose the reddish conjunctiva. In black and black-and-white Newfoundlands, the eyes should be dark brown, brown animals may have a lighter tint.
Newfoundland ears are small, set closer to the back of the head, have a triangular shape, rounded at the tips. If the ear of an adult Newfoundland is pulled forward, its end should reach the inner corner of the eye, which is on the same side of the head
Powerful, muscular, without pronounced suspension. It is long enough that it provides a majestic fit of the head.
Newfoundland's forelimbs should be straight. They remain parallel even in cases when the dog is pacing steadily or moving at a leisurely trot. The shoulder muscular system is well developed, the shoulders themselves are set back. The pasterns are slightly sloping. The hind limbs are expressively powerful, with well-developed femoral muscles. The shins are strong, elongated. The posterior pasterns are short, set low and wide, they are parallel to each other, do not bulge either inwards or outwards. The feet of the paws of Newfoundland are large, commensurate with the trunk. They are rounded and look lumpy. The fingers are firm, compact, tightly closed, they are connected by swimming membranes. The claws of divers of black and black-and–white color are black, for brown dogs the horn color of the claws is characteristic. If the dog has profitable fingers, they should be removed.
The tail of the Newfoundland is thick, wide at its base. When the dog swims, he acts like a steering wheel. The tail of a standing animal is slightly lowered, a slight bend is noticeable at its end, it descends approximately to the hock joint, sometimes slightly lower. When the animal is in motion or playfully tuned, the tail is held high, then it is slightly curved upwards. It is not allowed that the tail is thrown on the back or tucked between the legs.
Newfoundland moves with a flourish, demonstrating indefatigability and power. The back remains flat during the movement. In the process of running, with increasing speed, the dog tries to put his paws closer to the middle line.
Both the wool and the undercoat of Newfoundland are oily, waterproof, smooth, thick, and have a rigid structure. Wool has a water-repellent effect. The guard hairs are quite long and straight, there are no curls, but a slight waviness is acceptable. The soft, dense undercoat becomes even thicker in winter, especially in the croup and chest area. The tail of the dog is covered with long thick hair, the head, muzzle and ears are short, soft. The limbs are decorated with feathering.
The classic color is considered black. It is desirable that the color be as intense as possible, when burning out in the sun, a brownish shade is acceptable. For the brown color of Newfoundland, shades are allowed: from chocolate to bronze. With these two monochrome colors, white markings on the chest, fingers, and tip of the tail are acceptable.
For a black and white color, the following option is the most preferable: a black head with a white groove that descends to the muzzle, black spots on the saddle, in the area of the croup and the base of the tail. The dominant cover should be white.
- Lightweight body with a light backbone, giving the impression of looseness.
- Hunched, soft or sagging back.
- Pointed or simply elongated muzzle.
- Round or protruding eyes, their yellow color, naked conjunctiva.
- High limbs. Weak pasterns, loose paws on the forelimbs, straightened knee angles and turned inwards paws on the hind legs. Absence of webbing connecting the fingers.
- Excessively short or elongated tail, or broken, twisting at the end.
- Mincing, shuffling or uncertain gait, sideways movements, short step, crossing of the forelimbs in the process of movement.
Photos of Newfoundland
Character of Newfoundland
Newfoundland is called a dog with a "golden" character. He is kind, loyal, friendly, tactful, absolutely not disposed to aggression. Using the terminology of psychics, we can say that he has a good biofield. The very presence of this good-natured giant in the house creates an atmosphere of comfort, security and benevolence.
Perhaps Newfoundlands are the most socialized dogs in the world, the main purpose of their existence is to serve man. They are selflessly heroic and ready to help at any moment. They are completely devoted to the work assigned to them – whether it is a police or military mission, escort of the blind and even cargo transportation. No wonder one of the paintings by the British artist Edwin Henry Landseer, which depicts Newfoundland in all its glory, is called "A Worthy Member of Human Society."
Divers have been demonstrating their excellent character traits since early childhood. Kids are not at all capricious, they quickly get attached to the owner, but they do not get bored, demanding increased attention to themselves, they do not whine and do not bark for no reason.
Adult dogs are incredibly smart and practical. You can even say that they have an analytical mind and have their own opinion on any issue. Commands that seem meaningless to them, they can simply ignore or execute in their own way. But in order to rush to the aid of a drowning person, this dog does not need a team at all – she will selflessly throw herself into the water in any case. Clearly and confidently Newfoundlands act in dangerous situations, for this they also do not need special instructions. Actually, innate intelligence and the ability to independently and quickly make the right decision under the circumstances is a distinctive feature of the outstanding intelligence of these animals.
Newfoundlanders are well versed in the intonations of the human voice and can easily determine what mood the owner is in. They understand when someone needs to be supported by being nearby, or they get out of sight. Very polite by nature, Newfoundlanders are very sensitive to rudeness towards themselves. The dog, like a person, is offended when he is shouted at, and after a quarrel for a while closes himself in, refusing to communicate with the offender.
Newfoundlands are not the best watchmen, because they initially treat all people kindly and are open to communication. An instant aggressive reaction to a stranger from them should not be expected, since these dogs are not inclined to abrupt and rash actions, and they need some time to analyze the situation. Sensing danger, they first warn the enemy with a menacing bark, and then violently attack him with all their remarkable power.
Newfoundlands love family picnics. In the car, they behave decorously and do not worry. Outdoor games, especially near reservoirs where they can swim a lot, bring these dogs incredible pleasure. Parents can be calm for the kids if there is a vigilant Newfoundland next to them. He will be happy to participate in children's fun, but he will stop risky pranks – on his own or by barking loudly he will notify others of the danger.
Newfoundland is a monogamous dog. Having given his heart to one family, he will always remain faithful to it. Having changed owners for some reason, the dog will be polite to them, but he will not be able to get rid of homesickness. It will be difficult for new owners to establish a trusting relationship with such a pet.
Education and training
Newfoundland's intelligence and excellent memory turn ordinary workouts into a pleasant pastime. The dog grasps everything on the fly and often, without listening to the task to the end, starts to do it. Commands to this dog should be given in a calm tone, without raising his voice. She simply won't respond to demanding orders and shouts. Actually, this is not required: it is enough for Newfoundland to ask for something politely and gently, and he will readily respond to any wish.
Care and maintenance
Newfoundlands feel great both in nature and in urban conditions: they are not afraid of busy streets or traffic. Small-sized apartments are not the best place to live for these giants, but medium-sized housing is quite suitable for them, because dogs with a calm disposition do not have the habit of rushing around the apartment, sweeping everything around. A Newfoundland should have his own place in the house where he will sleep or just relax. It is desirable that it is spacious and has an orthopedic base, for example, it can be a small mattress. It should be covered with a cloth that is easily erased, since these dogs have copious salivation.
Newfoundlands are not very frisky and are prone to passive pastime, but they need physical exertion. These dogs should be walked at least twice a day, preferably in the morning and evening.
The ideal place to keep Newfoundland is a country house, near which there is a pond, lake or river. Aviary maintenance is not suitable for a diver – deprived of communication with people, he will miss. Moreover, it is impossible to put him on a chain.
Thick Newfoundland wool requires systematic care. The dog should be combed at least three times a week with a stiff brush, otherwise its fur will fall off and form tangles that can poison your dog's life, causing itching. If a tangle has formed, it is better to untangle it. They are cut out in extreme, completely neglected cases. Twice a year, in autumn and spring, the undercoat of Newfoundlands is renewed. During this period, the dog needs to be combed every day. To help your pet, you can also contact a grooming master who will carry out a lightening haircut.
Newfoundlands do not require frequent bathing, because their wool, impregnated with natural lubricant, repels dirt and water itself. The use of shampoos has a very bad effect on the condition of the coat.
Newfoundland claws need to be cut once a month. It is required to monitor the ears and eyes, systematically checking them for the presence of secretions that may indicate infectious diseases. Periodically, the ears and eyes should be wiped with a moistened cloth.
Feeding Newfoundlands should be taken seriously. It should be balanced, plentiful, but in moderation, since these dogs are prone to obesity.
With natural feeding, the following products should be in the dog's diet:
- veal, beef, lamb, rabbit meat (50% of the total amount of products). It is not recommended to feed them pork and poultry meat;
- from cereals – hercules and buckwheat, and rice, barley, millet is better to exclude;
- sea fish – raw or boiled, river fish – exclusively boiled;
- cottage cheese;
- carrots, in small quantities – beets and cabbage, scalded with boiling water parsley, nettle, dill, lettuce;
- bread in the form of crackers.
Potatoes, spicy and smoked foods, sweets, especially chocolate, are prohibited in the feed.
In the diet of Newfoundlands, you can include ready-made high-quality super-premium and holistic feeds.
Puppies should be fed 5 times a day, as they get older, the number of feedings decreases. It is enough for adult dogs to give food twice a day.
Health and diseases of Newfoundlands
Newfoundlands are characterized by a number of diseases both common to all dogs and peculiar to this particular breed. Their massiveness creates problems for the musculoskeletal system, they often develop arthritis and hip dysplasia. Sedentary lifestyle, lack of activity can lead to obesity and, as a result, to heart disease.
A native of the north, Newfoundland suffers from heat, and may well get heatstroke. Its main signs are lethargy, dry warm nose, lack of appetite. On hot days, you need to make sure that the dog always has water in the bowl. In no case should you leave the dog in a closed car. In summer, it is advisable to give the diver the opportunity to swim more often.
How to choose a puppy
Newfoundland puppies, of course, need to be bought in a kennel or from a breeder whose integrity you are sure of. In this case, you will have guarantees that the baby is thoroughbred, has all the necessary vaccinations. In the nursery, you can get to know his mom, and, if you're lucky, then with dad. This will give you the opportunity to get an idea of what your grown-up "bear cub" will look like.
According to the rules of the RKF, breeders have the right to sell puppies after they turn 45 days old. But many people prefer to buy babies who have already been vaccinated, that is, at the age of 3-3.5 months. In this case, they can already be safely walked. Those who want to buy a puppy for breeding should wait until he grows up to 6-9 months, when the features of his anatomy and behavior will be obvious.
A small Newfoundland should have a proportional physique and be a tiny copy of an adult dog. A puppy is supposed to be active, curious, moderately well-fed. His fur should be shiny and clean, without tangles, and his bite should be correct.
Photos of Newfoundland puppies
How much does Newfoundland cost
Prices for Newfoundland puppies range from $200 to $1150 and depend on a number of nuances: the title of the parents, the fame of the kennel, age, the presence of deviations from the breed standard.
Show-class puppies with the prospect of making an exhibition career, as well as those babies that can be used, according to the breeder, for breeding, are valued above all.