Doberman is a dog that combines high intelligence and devotion, fearlessness and vigilance, strength and grace in the most amazing way.
- Breed name: Doberman
- Country of Origin: Germany
- The time of the birth of the breed: 1890
- Weight: Males: 40-45 kg. Females: 32-35 kg.
- Height (height at the withers): Males: 68-72 cm. Females: 63-68 cm
- Life expectancy: 10-14 years
- It's hard to find a more versatile dog than a Doberman. This is a defender, a companion, a faithful companion, and just a family pet. These animals are confidently included in the top lists of the most popular breeds in many countries of the world.
- Doberman is infinitely devoted to his master and his family, is friendly enough to familiar people and pets. With all his temperament, he does not lose his vigilance for a second and is always ready to help.
- Dogs of this breed need constant physical activity. They have excellent performance characteristics and a high degree of trainability. That is why it is important to properly educate a pet in order to direct all its natural inclinations in the right direction.
- Natural intelligence, efficiency, inexhaustible desire to learn something new make it possible to achieve the most amazing results in working with a dog. A Doberman can do anything – if this is an exaggeration, it is very insignificant.
- With all its positive qualities and good natural inclinations, the Doberman is a dog that is not suitable for everyone. A phlegmatic, indifferent person or, conversely, with an explosive unstable character will never be able to reveal all the advantages of a dog.
- This dog instinctively feels "what is good and what is bad", whether it concerns a person or a specific situation.
- Doberman by nature is an animal with a balanced psyche, which, with the right approach, is able to reveal to you the best qualities of its canine soul.
- The prevailing opinion among the townsfolk that dogs of this breed are hysterical and evil is fundamentally wrong. The aggression of a Doberman is only a response to the living conditions in which he grows and is brought up.
- Doberman is an aristocrat dog. To have such a strong, intelligent, loyal and loyal dog at home is a reason for pride.
Doberman is a breed confidently entering the top 20 in popularity. To the question: "What are these animals famous for?" – experts will tell you about the legendary Club, a police Doberman who served in the St. Petersburg police at the beginning of the XX century. With his help, more than 1,500 crimes were solved. Experts will also offer to read Yesenin, from whom you will find the lines: "Give me a paw, Jim, for luck. I have never seen such a paw...", and they will tell that the favorite of the great Russian artist Vasily Kachalov was a Doberman. And how many more stories about this wonderful dog you will hear ...
History of the Doberman breed
Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann – this is the full name of the man who became the creator of the dog breed so popular in our time. A native of the small German town of Alpoda, he changed many professions, among which were a tax collector and a night policeman. It was during this period that Karl thought about breeding a breed that would meet the service requirements as much as possible. According to Dobermann, such a dog should have been of medium height, smooth-haired, harmoniously combining intellectual qualities with vigilance and physical endurance. Constantly visiting exhibitions and sales of animals, which began to take place regularly in Apolda since 1860, he selected the most suitable animals for breeding work.
In 1880, Dobermann and his friends bought a small house and began to closely engage in breeding a new breed. Soon the first success came. Dobermann dogs were bought with pleasure by numerous customers. Today it is difficult to establish which breeds were used in breeding, since no records of the course and results of breeding were kept. It can be assumed that among the ancestors of the Doberman were Old German Pinscher, shepherd Bosserons, rottweilers . It is possible that the Manchester Black and tan Terrier, Blue Great Dane, pointer and even mastiff could have left their mark. The main thing remains that the result was a dog with surprisingly diverse and pronounced characteristics.
The breed was originally named the Thuringian Pinscher. Another Apolda resident named Otto Goeller (Holler) seriously engaged in its improvement. He managed to somewhat soften the excessively aggressive nature of the dog, make it more docile and obedient, without sacrificing at all amazing abilities for security and guard service.
There were some curiosities in the history of Dobermans. Goeller's neighbor was so active in expressing his dissatisfaction with the noise and barking constantly coming from Otto's house that the latter was forced to distribute most of the dogs, leaving only a few representatives of the new breed. This gave an additional impetus to its spread and contributed to the growth of popularity.
In 1894, after the death of Karl Dobermann, in memory of his merits, the breed was renamed "Doberman Pinscher". In 1897, a special screening was organized in Erfurt, Germany, and an official presentation was held. In 1899, the club "Doberman Pinscher of the Year Apolda" was created, and just a year later, due to the huge increase in the popularity of animals, it was renamed the "National Doberman Pinscher Club of Germany". The breed began its triumphal march across Europe, and then around the world.
In Russia, the widespread distribution of Dobermans occurred at the very beginning of the XX century.
In 1949, the second word was removed from the name of the breed, since the leading dog handlers considered the classification of this dog to the pinscher group incorrect.
In February 1994, the International Cynological Federation (FCI) entered the Doberman breed in its register under No. 143, indicating Germany as its country of origin.
Doberman is a medium–sized dog with a strong muscular body that harmoniously combines the nobility of posture with clarity and grace of lines. This is an ideal dog with an impeccable anatomical structure. It is simply impossible to hide the exterior flaws of a Doberman – he is all in plain sight. An ensemble of power, huge internal energy with external grace and even some refinement – this is the first overall impression of this breed
Height at the withers of the male – from 68 to 72 cm; females – 63-68 cm. Deviations in height in any direction by more than 2 cm is considered a disqualifying sign.
The weight of an adult male ranges from 40-45 kg, the female weighs from 32 to 35 kg.
Doberman is a medium–sized animal with an elegant appearance, harmoniously developed musculature, without any signs of excessive massiveness and roughness of body outlines. The dog is more square than elongated. The height at the withers is approximately equal (or slightly less) than the length of the body.
The Doberman's head is commensurate in size with the overall proportions. The shape when viewed from above resembles a blunt wedge. The line of the crown when viewed from the front is smooth, not falling down to the ears. The stop is not sharp, but noticeable. The muscles are well developed. There is no cheek.
The length of the Doberman's muzzle is almost the same as the length of the skull. The incision of the oral slit reaches the molars. The mouth opens wide. The nose is wide, but not protruding. The color of the lobe is black or a lighter shade, depending on the color of the animal. Lips – dry and well-fitting to the jaws. Jaws – well developed, wide. The bite is scissor-shaped.
Oval shape of medium size. The color of the iris is dark. In brown Dobermans, a lighter shade of eyes is allowed.
The Doberman's ears are set high. If they are docked, they stand vertically. In countries where cupping is prohibited, they should be medium-sized, with the front edge adjacent to the ear.
Long, graceful, straight. Very muscular and strong.
The protruding withers gives rise to the back line. The dorsal and lumbar sections are short, only large elongation index values are allowed in bitches. The croup is rounded.
Convex, wide with slightly protruding ribs. Well developed in the front. The depth of the chest should be about half the height of the dog at the withers.
The Doberman's tail is set high, very short – only two vertebrae remain visible. Where this operation is prohibited by law, the presence of a natural tail is allowed.
Vertical, straight when viewed from any angle. Musculature is developed.
Straight, parallel. Thighs with clearly defined strong muscles.
Both front and hind legs are short, in a lump. The claws are dark. The fingers are arched.
The Doberman's coat is short, rather stiff, smooth and thick. Evenly distributed throughout the body. Fits snugly, there is no undercoat.
Black or brown. The presence of clearly visible, well-defined borders of rusty-red markings on certain parts of the body is mandatory.
Breed defects include any deviation from the requirements of the standard.
Disqualifying signs are:
- in general appearance – a mismatch of the dog's appearance by gender (male in the bitch type or vice versa), blue or yellow (wolf) eyes, malocclusion and lack of teeth;
- according to the condition of the coat – apparently elongated or wavy, rare with receding hairline, the presence of white spots;
- by nature – fearfulness, nervousness and aggressiveness.
Photo of an adult Doberman
You have taken a Doberman into your house. What to expect from this dog, because opinions about the breed sometimes vary dramatically. Let's try to deal with this issue.
The character of an animal can be expressed most succinctly in one word – vigilance. His "karma" is to be always on the alert. This over–caution is in no way the result of fear and intimidation, it is rather a consequence of the genetically inherent ability to think in this way, the result of his mental activity.
With the similarity of characters, each dog of this breed is a personality, paradoxical as it sounds.
Many experts call the Doberman a dog with human thinking, because he is very easy to learn and never forgets the lessons learned. However, only a master with a sufficient level of intelligence and a balanced calm character can cope with a Doberman, raise and educate him.
In order to make sure that the Doberman is not an ordinary dog, watch him. Is he sleeping, riding with you in the car, messing with your kids? Take a closer look! He sleeps at home, rides on his seat, frolics with his babies. Everything is perceived by this amazing animal as personal, its own and located in the sphere of its direct responsibility. He should be aware of all the events taking place in the house, and you, in his opinion, only provide him with everything necessary.
Initially, this breed was bred to perform certain tasks. And service Dobermans were brought up on the principle of unquestioning loyalty to the owner and aggressive suspicion of an outsider. Hence the opinion of the Doberman as an evil inadequate creature. However, breeders managed to get rid of undesirable qualities while fully preserving all performance characteristics, so that modern Dobermans are full–fledged family pets.
In no case is it possible, using the inclinations inherent in nature – strength, lack of fear, impetuosity, intelligence – to cultivate a "fiend of hell" from your Doberman. One of the most striking features of this dog is that she herself is able to understand the difference between good and bad, and raising her by methods of anger and terror is simply a crime.
Doberman is a loving and very smart friend, a top–class "security" dog, capable of embodying all your ideas about the ideal dog!
Education and training
Doberman is one of the most easily trained breeds. But one should not think that it is possible to raise a well-trained, well-mannered dog without making any effort.
It is necessary to work with a pet from an early age. First of all, it is necessary to make it clear to the baby who is the owner and leader of the pack in the house. Without becoming an authority for the animal, you will never achieve the set results. The dog is very intelligent by nature and will not follow the commands of the owner if he does not feel his superiority over himself.
Discipline, consistency of actions and perseverance are the main components of success in training and raising a Doberman. You must patiently enforce your commands, however, without resorting to violence in any case. Cruelty is a weapon of the weak, and your dog will at best cease to perceive you, and at worst – may harbor a grudge and one day throw it out on you. Affection and persuasion act much more effectively on the Doberman.
Love for a puppy in no way means permissiveness. Once having made a decision not to feed the dog from your table or not allowing her to immediately run into the rooms after a walk, follow the established rules constantly, without making exceptions. But you should not punish the puppy, especially after him, for gnawed slippers or furniture. Not only will they not understand you, but they will also be offended. This is the worst thing that can happen in a relationship. Your pet should see you as a best friend and like-minded person.
It is necessary to properly organize the process of training a Doberman. First of all, you should train the puppy to perform basic commands: "To me!", "Sit!", "Place!". Do not forget to encourage the dog for success in training with a treat, or even just a kind affectionate word.
During walks, it is better to give the command "To me!" repeatedly, and not just going home. In this case, your pet will not have negative associations of the team with the completion of such a beloved event as a walk with the owner.
The system of home training should take into account all the features of your Doberman, from his temperament and character traits to gastronomic preferences. It is better to entrust the training of the full course of general obedience, and especially the course of protective service, to professionals.
A well–trained Doberman is the pride of the owner, the subject of delight and admiration of others.
Care and maintenance
Doberman, as a shorthair breed, is perfect for keeping in a city apartment. If you live in your own house, then you can settle the animal in a specially equipped aviary, although you still need to periodically let the dog into the house. The aviary itself will be correctly placed in the shade, since Dobermans do not tolerate heat very well. The floor in the aviary should be made of boards laid on logs 10-20 cm thick. Although the technical capabilities allow you to organize the heating of the aviary with the help of narrowly focused infrared heaters, in the cold season it is better to keep the dog in the house.
It is very important to organize proper care for a Doberman baby. The room where the puppy lives should be clean and warm enough. Keeping in mind the very high motor activity of dogs of this breed, do not allow a hot baby to lie down on a cold floor – he can catch a cold at best, and at worst – earn extremely painful inflammation of muscle tissue. Rain and snow should not be a reason to cancel the walk, but after it it is necessary to let the dog dry off and warm up in a warm room.
The very process of caring for a Doberman does not seem very complicated. It is not necessary to comb the wool often. Just wipe your pet once a week with a wet towel, then use a brush with stiff bristles to comb (or rather massage) the dog's body. Frequent bathing is also not recommended. It will be enough to resort to it once every six months. Moreover, experts of the breed note the weakening of immunity in Dobermans with regular water procedures. But washing paws after a walk in bad weather is quite an ordinary and harmless procedure.
The animal's ears and eyes need to be controlled. Periodically, they need to be cleaned with a cotton swab soaked in ordinary clean water.
The claws are carefully trimmed as needed – if they are not sufficiently sharpened.
The dog's litter, its toys, food and drink bowls must be kept clean.
Doberman must receive a sufficient amount of physical activity. You need to walk with a dog that is kept in the house for at least two hours a day. In winter, if you do not have special dog clothes, the duration of walks is reduced to reasonable limits.
Both dry food and natural products can be used as food for Dobermans.
When organizing animal nutrition, adhere to the following basic rules.
- Premium dry food for large dogs can be used if your pet's weight is in the range of 23-24 kg. For dogs with a body weight of 25 kg or more, special dietary formulations are used that block the process of obesity.
- Meat should occupy most of the menu made up of natural products. It is desirable that it was veal. The daily consumption rate for an adult active dog is about 1 kg. Minced meat, offal, fatty meat as an alternative are undesirable.
- The daily diet should include: cereals (except semolina and barley), vegetables (preferably carrots, cabbage, zucchini), low-fat dairy products.
For dogs of "solid" age, food can be softened in kefir, this method is not used for young individuals.
Proper care of a Doberman also implies constant monitoring by the owner of the animal's health, compliance with the vaccination schedule.
Doberman health and Diseases
Despite the fact that Dobermans are classified as dog breeds with good health, there are a number of diseases and hereditary problems that are more characteristic of these animals.
First of all, these are heart diseases. Unfortunately, veterinarians diagnose cardiovascular diseases (ischemic disease, tachycardia, arrhythmia, heart failure), even in young animals who have not yet reached the age of five. To make the treatment as effective as possible, monitor the condition of your pet. Breathing problems, cases of falling while walking, balance disorders, convulsive trembling – all these symptoms indicate problems with the heart and are a signal for immediate treatment in the veterinary clinic. Such animals are shown medication, and it is better to always carry prescribed medications with you. Heart problems can also be hereditary. All the same shortness of breath, weakness up to fainting can manifest in a Doberman not immediately, but already when the disease is started, and it is problematic to cope with it. Preventive measures should come out on top in this case, the most effective of which are systematic examinations and cardio tests.
Narcolepsy is another genetic "problem" of the Doberman. This is a specific disorder of the nervous system, which manifests itself in a short-term (from a few seconds to 15-20 minutes) drop in muscle tone. The animal becomes completely motionless, the eyes glaze over. Loud noise or body stroking can help to revive the dog. The nature of the disease is not completely clear, and your task remains with the help of the advice of a veterinarian only to prevent seizures.
Dobermans have a genetic predisposition to the occurrence of stomach inversion. The provoking factor here is improper nutrition. This serious problem is indicated by the following symptoms – bloating, excessive salivation, abdominal pain, constant urge to vomit and defecation. The dog becomes very nervous. It is by no means possible to delay applying for qualified help in case of such problems.
Unfortunately, Dobermans often suffer from allergies. It can be caused by house dust, pollen of plants, mold fungi. Among the most serious problems resulting from allergic reactions may be the occurrence of sacral licking granuloma in your pet. The disease is very difficult to treat, and simple drug therapy is no longer enough.
Proper care, balanced nutrition, timely vaccination, systematic preventive examinations at the veterinarian, love and care – these are the main conditions for maintaining the good health of your pet.
How to choose a puppy
Buying a small Doberman, of course, you want to see a reliable, loyal and intelligent dog next to you. In many ways it depends on how responsibly you approach the choice of a puppy.
The question of where to buy a dog should be solved without alternative – only in a specialized kennel or from experienced breeders with a good reputation. Buying at the bird market or via the Internet in the vast majority of cases is not justified.
It is very important to determine the sex of the puppy. The choice, as you understand, is small, but still there. A Doberman girl is usually more affectionate and attentive. The male will cope better with the role of a formidable and self-confident companion-defender.
Even a short conversation with the breeder can tell a lot to an attentive person. People who love dogs and are responsible for their breeding can be seen immediately. They will be happy and knowledgeable to answer all your questions, give recommendations on the care and maintenance of the animal. Professional breeders usually offer their clients to familiarize themselves with the training diplomas (both for general obedience and for the course of protective service) of the parents of puppies. This to a certain extent guarantees that your chosen one has the necessary working qualities.
It is very important to evaluate the behavior and appearance of the mother dog. Her coat should be smooth and shiny, her eyes should be lively and clear. In relation to you, she should behave cautiously, even with a certain degree of tension, but not hysterically aggressive.
When examining a Doberman puppy, pay attention to the following points:
- the baby should have a wide back and a strong backbone;
- the body is almost square, the neck is long;
- jaws are wide enough, even a small Doberman has a well-defined chin;
- tummy is soft and painless, with no signs of umbilical hernia;
- the coat is smooth, not dull.
A healthy baby is active and inquisitive, but cowardice and lethargy are not typical for the "right" Doberman baby at all.
The curvature of the paws, traces of discharge from the eyes, white spots on the skin, swollen belly, protruding ribs indicate that the puppy is not quite healthy.
By the age of one and a half months, the baby's tail should already be docked, and the wound should be well scarred. At 1.5 months, many breeders also stop the puppy's ears, although this is not always practiced. You can safely buy a "lopoushka", but in this case, remember that all the problems associated with bringing the appearance of your pet to the requirements of the standard will fall on your shoulders.
The responsible breeder, together with the animal, must necessarily give you a puppy card containing data on all vaccinations performed. The number of this document necessarily coincides with the number of the stamp, which is usually applied on the stomach, less often on the dog's ear.
Photos of Doberman puppies
How much does a doberman cost
Statistics show that the price of a Doberman puppy fluctuates within $150 - $400. Nurseries engaged in breeding elite representatives of the breed can request up to $550.
Prices for Doberman puppies sold at the bird market or through private ads on the Internet, of course, may be noticeably less, but if such a baby eventually grows up to be not quite, or not at all a Doberman, you will have only yourself to blame.
The lowest amount you will have to pay for a pet-class puppy. Such animals have signs, sometimes almost imperceptible to the layman's eye, because of which they will not be allowed to breed and will never become champions. But, if you are not ambitious and are just looking for a good friend and companion, a Doberman of this class is what you need.
Breed class is the basis of the breed. Dogs of good blood, fully conforming to the standard, suitable for breeding work. The cost of such a Doberman will already be noticeably higher.
Show class – the best of the best, elite puppies. Such babies are not born every day and not every couple, so the price for them is appropriate.